"The Frontier At It's Very Worst."
Utah's Native American tragedy brought an end to a sacred time for them, a time that must be remembered, honored, and never forgotten. The gritty realities of the Black Hawk war was the frontier at it's very worst as Mormon emigrants, from abroad, ventured to North America seeking freedom from tyranny. They were led by a belief that as Christians they had a right to take possession of discovered countries, provided those countries were inhabited by non-Christians.
Depredations of Utah's Indian peoples began February 28, 1849 with the first of six massacres at Battle Creek Pleasant Grove. A company of 44 Mormon militia,
under the leadership of Captain John Scott, left Salt Lake City in
pursuit of a so called “renegade band of Indians” who, it was
alleged, had taken horses belonging to Mormon leader Brigham Young. According to
reliable accounts Brigham gave the order for Capt. Scott and his men
to find and punish the perpetrators. But before the troops reached
the valley where the Utes were camped, Capt. Scott had received word
from Brigham "three times" that the horses had been found and to
return to Salt Lake.
Capt. Scott ignored Brigham's order. It is said that Scott and his men met up with a Ute Indian by the name of Little Chief on the Provo River who then led Scott to an encampment of Indians who allegedly had been doing some stealing. Though it seems unlikely Little Chief would have betrayed his people in this way, perhaps threatened he gave in, and the trail took the company of soldiers to the mouth of a canyon above Pleasant Grove. Scott and his men split into four groups and surround the camp, and opened fire on the unsuspecting people sleeping there. In the crisp morning air, on that cold February morning, lingered a thick gray smoke of gun powder; the frozen snow was now crimson red with fresh Indian blood. This day would mark the beginning of a 21 year battle with Mormons, the US Government, and all five tribes of the Ute Indian Nation.
The Black Hawk War was not a single event, there were some 150 bloody confrontations. Native peoples long time vibrant culture numbered in the tens of thousands, at minimum 50,000 or more, and it is astonishing to find that during the years of 1849 to 1870 their population steadily declined by 90 percent from disease, starvation, and violence! The victors accounts rush by these facts that Natives to the land were subjected to every conceivable and inconceivable deceit, dishonesty, torture, mass butchery, rape, and death, death to others, and death to animals and plants, to the waters and the land, while Indigenous men, women, and children were left to wonder alone in a land they believed belonged to them for eternity, a people who in their final agony cried out "we are human too."
In this introduction to the Black Hawk War of Utah, I come from a perspective that better reflects Utah's Native American Indians view because, for over a decade now it has been my honor to learn from them, and because my g-grandfather also spent most of his time in their camps during the war. And I honor the friendship between them. I feel we have a responsibility to compassionately understand their pain and to not sanitize the Black Hawk War. Thousands of lives were lost in the war. Most never knew why, it is truly Utah's forgotten tragedy.
It is easy to conclude that the Black Hawk War was not a time in history for Utahans to be proud of, and if they are then they truly misunderstand the harsh realities of this human catastrophe. There is nothing about the Black Hawk war that celebrates our noble ancestors. There is a great temptation then, to ignore the truth saying, "that's all in the past, we just need to forget about it."
"History has to be remembered for whatever happened." Loya Arrum Ute Member
"An understanding of the true history is central to the well-being of the community. when it comes to the Black Hawk Story, if the truth is never told then everyone operates out of myth." Forrest Cuch Ute Leader
Trying to understand Native peoples intellectually is not the same as learning from them first hand. From my personal experience with Native Americans over the past decade, I find their approach to life brings a great sense of equality and brotherhood. Their profound connection to Mother earth, their recognition of a great and immense power, and their respect for all living things goes beyond the meaning of the word, to have respect is to treat all of Creators work as sacred, giving purpose and meaning to the wholeness of life. The "Seven Teachings" of honesty, respect, humility, love, kindness, courage, and wisdom I found to be common among all the many tribes I have talked with, and are principals they have lived by throughout time. It was through their teachings and council I overcame my own personal prejudices. From the Native peoples I have a greater sense of what true freedom is, and not the illusion of being free. Chief Joseph said, "We have no qualms about color. It has no meaning. It doesn't mean anything. When we are together we are one. Nothing can break it." This is the same message Chief Sitting Bull conveyed when he said, "The heart knows not the color of the skin." These are ancient traditional teachings, and it is disheartening to me that the humanity of the Native American is ignored, overshadowed by stories of war tactics, fictitious and hollow accusations. (Also see video: FIRST NATIONS ( LAKOTA PEOPLE ) ♥ Heartbreaking ♥)
But this story is not about me, it's about Utah's indigenous who are the other half of the Black Hawk War story that no one has ever written about. I will say, with both pleasure and humility, I have a deep appreciation for their generosity that they share their most painful stories with me. However, if the true story of the Indian peoples of Utah is ever to be told, I say respectfully, it is they who will need to tell it.
What is important for all to understand is that the traditional ways of the Indian peoples are the same today as it has always been, and the evidence is abundantly clear to support it. In the light of this truth we begin to see the ambiguities in the victors accounts. As I have traveled from north to south America, they remind me of this fact, "truth only comes from one source." Their ancient ceremonies are designed to teach these principles, and to give thanks and ask Creator for guidance. Indeed they are human too, and have always understood the human condition. Historical accounts tend to look right through the spiritual teachings of Indigenous people... why?
So, there is no mystery or plethora of complex reasons why the Black Hawk War happened, it's very simple. It was our ancestors arrogance, not their humility, that caused the war. It was their greed, not their generosity, that created the conflict. It was their loathing, not their respect, that caused the deaths of countless children, women, and men. Truth becomes cloaked in brilliantly managed rhetoric that unfairly lays all blame upon Utah's Native Peoples.
There are always two sides to any war. While many scholars and writers over the past 150 years have been writing accounts of war tactics, brave soldiers, divine interventions and the like, what they write of the Native peoples specifically is often scant, brief, and disingenuous. They, because of their arrogance, did not ask or care what the Indians they studied had to say about their work, or did they ask how they would analyze, interpret, or if they had their own version of the particular story they were writing about. If they had done so we would see a much different account. Our understanding of Utah's Black Hawk war is made better from scholars, authors and historians both Native and non-native like Will Bagley, Dr. Daniel McCool, Forrest Cuch (Ute), Dr. Floyd O'Neil, Larry Cesspooch (Ute), Robert Carter, each having firsthand relations with Utah's Native peoples they write about.
We should always remember that this land was their heritage, their birthright that they would defend against all odds. You may Judge them and their way of life if you must, but do so by their standards.
As I have pointed out, many of the victors accounts in Utah are often misleading. For example, the man they called "Chief Black Hawk", actually his Ute name was Nuch. "Black Hawk" and "Antonga" are not Ute Indian names! The name "Black Hawk" is not in the language of any of Utah's Indian Tribes. Then who was Black Hawk? The answer is definitive, there never was a man the Utes called "Black Hawk."
It was a name Brigham Young, in jest, called the Ute's leader. So it became that Brigham Young's supercilious term, 'Black Hawk,' is the name by which he is now most commonly known. In fact there were some three or more Indians the whites referred to as Black Hawk in Utah history. It was a sarcastic joke, a mockery referring to the Sauk and Fox Indian tribes (Mesquaki) under the leadership of the real Chief Black Hawk and the tragic Black Hawk War of 1832 in Illinois, where the Mormons migrated from. It was, perhaps, a sinister message to the Utes that a similar destiny awaited them. For example, the photo to the right here is not Utah's Black Hawk Hawk, it originates from the Smithsonian, it is a drawing of a Kiowa Apache the whites called "Black Hawk", but the name is not in the Apache language either.
To the Mexicans Nuch was known as "Antonga", a nick-name. The name is not a Ute name either. The Ute's had long established trade relations with the Mexicans and interacted with them for decades or more. Utah's so called "Antonga" and/or "Black Hawk" was born into a family of legendary leaders going back centuries in time, and was known to the Utes as Nuch, he was so named in honor of his people the Nuchu, a sacred name the Utes call themselves. (See the Facts)
Nuch was a clever man, and a highly respected leader whom history has mistakenly and unfairly demonized. In his childhood he was educated in Jesse Williams Fox's school in Manti. Then in his mid teens Nuch ("Black Hawk") witnessed with extreme agony the senseless murders of his family at Battle Creek, and the gruesome beheadings of his kin at Fort Utah. Years later he was honorably chosen by his tribe to be a sub-Chief of his brother Chief Tabby. He accepted the challenge. Out numbered and against all odds of ever winning, he, his fellow warriors, his communal tribe, and neighboring allies, with incredible skill and cooperation commanded a formidable counter-attack that effectively held back white expansion into central and southern Utah territory, their most valued homeland, for nearly a decade. Because Nuch understood the Mormon's economics he managed to undermine their economy causing cattle markets to collapse and the abandonment of some 70 Mormon villages.
In spite of his skill as a leader, and his heroic efforts, Nuch and other Ute leaders had come to grips with reality, that life as they knew it was about to end. It is well documented that Nuch was a seasoned warrior, and he also was a compassionate man. It is a fact that war does not harden people, rather it humanizes them. He was resistant to killing, and only then in self-defense. Conditioned by his own personal torment, having witnessed his people becoming increasingly ill from whitman's diseases, and the slow agonizing death from starvation was unbearable. Often he went without food himself to help his people. Often he called upon Great Spirit for guidance, and to make peace with the spirit world. But, the hellish terror of his people's suffering was overwhelming as he saw their hearts fill with hopelessness and despair. Over the remaining days prior to his death in 1870, Nuch then led peace efforts, my great-grandfather called Black Hawk's "mission of peace", and to his honor his heroic and passionate plea for reconciliation contributed significantly to the ending of the bloodshed. Consistant, as in his childhood, he again tried to make peace with the whiteman. Peter Gottfredson, my great grandfather, was a friend of Nuch, and so was also deeply disturbed by what he saw as he witnessed man's inhumanity to man.
Nuch died of a gun shot wound he received a year earlier at Gravely Ford while attempting to rescue a fellow warrior named White Horse. The wound never healed properly and complications followed. Following the death of Nuch (Black Hawk) in 1870, in 1919 members of the Mormon church, without remorse, making no apologies, with documented pride and pleasure, robbed his grave, and publicly displayed his remains on Temple Square in downtown Salt Lake City! (See Details below. Also see Deseret Evening News Article here)
Respected Ute leaders speak freely...
He had fought the good fight, and he knew he was about to die, before Chief Nuch (Black Hawk) passed over in 1870, deathly ill from a bullet wound he received over a year earlier at Gravelly Ford while attempting to rescue a fallen comrade, he chose to travel 180 agonizing miles by horse, and he visited every Mormon village to apologize, taking responsibility for the pain and suffering he and his warriors had caused. Thinking not of himself but, putting his people first, he made one last appeal, he reminded them, "you broke your promises, stolen our land, killed our children, men and women, and spread disease among my people." Still he was willing to make peace, he then made a plea to the settlers to do the honorable thing, be honest, keep your promises, and end the bloodshed. "You didn't see that happening on the part of the settlers", said Forrest Cuch, "So it took a greater man to do such a thing. And that's what is overlooked in the victors’ accounts." ( See Gravelly Ford)
"It was white history that wrote it--that he (Black Hawk) surrendered. And no, a man like that don't surrender. He'll come to terms with reality. I'm done, we're done, we, we did what we could, we're done. But it gets written differently... And like any of us, I think you get to a point where it's like any war, you get in and you do what you've got to do. And maybe there's a family there, and you killed, killed their kids -- you, as a human, that thing we all are, is going to at least make you say I'm sorry." - Larry Cesspooch/Member of the Ute Tribe
The so called "treaties" made between the Mormons and the Utah's Native Tribes had no legal basis, only the Federal Government had the power to negotiate treaties, therefore they were only agreements of which Church leader Brigham Young failed to honor even one. - Dr. Floyd O'Neil
Much has been said about Black Hawk "stealing Mormon beef" and little or no emphasis on Mormon theft of Native lands, and more important their freedom.
Many times I have asked "what is the Utah Indians’ side of the story? And, why has their history, their account, their interpretation, their version been purposely ignored and long omitted from school curricula and historical accounts?" These are important questions, furthermore, I am speaking to the legacy of the Black Hawk War, for when people were denied access to their own true history by educators as both American Indians and non-Indians of Utah have been, when we are forced to accept solely the victors point of view, when cultural traditions and customs of the American Indian are systematically replaced by western beliefs; when Natives are denied their right to speak their own language and denied freedom, when they are systematically driven from their homeland and murdered, and their children are taken from their families and forced to give up their culture, it is genocide, a fulfillment of the Doctrine of Discovery. (Also see video: US Guilty of Genocide)
It is important to understand what the Doctrine of Discovery is about and it's roll in the founding of colonial America. "Papal authority is the basis for United States power over indigenous peoples but this fact is not generally understood, even by lawyers who work with federal Indian law. This is due in large part to the sophistry of John Marshall, one of the greatest figures in the pantheon of the U. S. Supreme Court in 1801. Marshall borrowed from Papal Bulls the essential legalisms needed for state power over indigenous peoples. He encased Christian religious premises within the rhetoric of "European" expansion: " - Peter d'Errico, Legal Studies Department, University of Massachusetts/Amherst. (See full text here)
Briefly, long before Columbus arrived in the Americas, Christian Monarchs decreed that anyone who did not believe in the God of the Bible, or that Jesus Christ was the true Messiah, were deemed "heathens," "infidels" and "savages." Christians then believed they were entitled to commit all manner of depredations upon them. Indeed America was founded upon Christian principals; there was no separation of church and state by those who drew their power from Old Testament-inspired Manifest Destiny, declaring: "This is the land promised by the Eternal Father to the Faithful, since we are commanded by God in the Holy Scriptures to take it from them, being idolaters, by reason of their idolatry and sin, to put them all to the knife, leaving no living thing save maidens and children, their cities robbed and sacked, their walls and houses leveled to the earth." - Steven T. Newcomb Indigenous Law Institute and author of "Pagans in the Promised Land."
And now, according to the Book of Mormon, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believed they had a divine obligation to convert Utah's American Indians to Mormonism, according to church doctrine, and in so doing the so-called "loathsome" Indians would become a "white and delightsome people" and would be forgiven of the sins of their forefathers. (Book of Mormon 2 Nephi 5:21-23) According to church doctrine, the nature of the dark skin was a curse, the cause was the Lord, the reason was because the Lamanites "had hardened their hearts against him, (God)" and the punishment was to make them "loathsome" unto God's people who had white skins. (See The Mormon Lamanite Placement Program) and (DNA Science Challenges LDS History)
"There was a time when our people were happy and content living in the majestic mountains and fertile green valleys of Utah. Then the Mormons came, and our people were killed—the old, the young, the children, women—and many taken to reservations where many more would die." - A Member of the Ute Tribe (Also see video: Ute Indians)
"We took from them almost all of their land--the reservations are just a tiny remnant of traditional tribal homelands. We tried to take from them their hunting rights, their fishing rights, the timber on their land. We tried to take from them their water rights. We tried to take from them their culture, their religion, their identity, and perhaps most importantly we tried to take from them their freedom. And what is so amazing about this whole story is that we failed. We failed after hundreds of years of trying to take everything from American Indians. We failed to do that. They are still here and there's survival; that great saga of survival is one of the great stories of all mankind." - Professor Dr. Daniel McCool University of Utah
American Indian inhabitants had occupied their ancestral land in Utah for some 20,000 years. Whereas, non-Indian people, namely fur traders, came and went. There were several native American tribes living in the area at the time the Ute, Paiute, Goshute, Shoshoni, and Uncompahgre, and they were understandably in sharp disagreement with Mormon settlers who steadily forced their way upon them.
In 1853 Ute leader Walkara (Black Hawk's uncle) told interpreter M. S. Martenas, "He (Walkara) said that he had always been opposed to the whites set[t]ling on the Indian lands, particularly that portion which he claims; and on which his band resides and on which they have resided since his childhood, and his parents before him—that the Mormons when they first commenced the settlement of Salt Lake Valley, was friendly, and promised them many comforts, and lasting friendship—that they continued friendly for a short time, until they became strong in numbers, then their conduct and treatment towards the Indians changed—they were not only treated unkindly, but many were much abused and this course has been pursued up to the present—sometimes they have been treated with much severity—they have been driven by this population from place to place—settlements have been made on all their hunting grounds in the valleys, and the graves of their fathers have been torn up by the whites." - STATEMENT, M. S. MARTENAS, INTERPRETER Great Salt Lake City, July 6 1853 Brigham Young Papers, MS 1234, Box 58, Folder 14 LDS Archives - Will Bagley Transcription
"When the Ute failed to assimilate into Mormon culture, the answer was to exterminate them." - Historian Robert Carter
In 1850 Mormon apostle George A. Smith, cousin to Church founder Joseph Smith, declared that the Indian people "have no right to their land" and he instructed the all-Mormon legislature to "extinguish all titles" and get them out of the way and onto reservations. Smith was 33 years of age when making decisions affecting the lives of thousands of Native peoples.
LDS Church President Brigham Young's victory was perhaps a hollow one for, in order to fulfill his dream, he had to destroy a civilization. He complained it was "cheaper to feed them than to fight them," as he was spending millions in church funds equipping his private army to war against them. Brigham paid his Generals from the church tithing fund as much as $300 a month while some 3000 soldiers were being paid some $16.00 a month each. Then in 1866 the United States government reimbursed Brigham some 1.5 million dollars for military expenses. (See Memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Utah)
Young's long-time admonition to the members of his church was to "Treat them kindly, and treat them as Indians, and not as your equals." Many "saints" were spending time in the Indian camps (my g-grandfather among them) and occasionally inviting Indian people into their homes, to which Brigham responded, "If the inhabitants of this Territory, my brethren, had never condescended to reduce themselves to the practices of the Indians, (as few of them have), to their low, degraded condition, and in some cases even lower, there never would have been any trouble between us and our red neighbors." - (See Brigham Young Discourses)
Brigham Young was quoted by the Denver Rocky Mountain Newspaper as saying, "You can get rid of more Indians with a sack of flour, than a keg of powder"... just how many of the some 70,000 Indians did he get rid of? The gruesome beheadings of some 40 Ute corpses in 1850, heads stacked in boxes, and hung by their long hair from the eves of buildings at Fort Utah, has long been ignored, "You didn't see the Indians beheading the Mormons." - Historian Robert Carter Author of Fort Utah
What was the motivation behind such barbarianism? Money? Indeed, the severed heads were shipped to Washington and sold for "scientific examination."
The massacre at Bear River (Known as massacre at Boa Ogoi by the Lemhi Shoshone) occurred January 29, 1863. It was the third out of six massacres in Utah, but by far one the worst ever in U.S. history. Over five hundred Shoshoni, innocent of any wrong doing, were slain by Mormon militia and U.S. army commander Colonel Patrick Edward Connor—among them, old men, 90 women and children. After the slaughter ended, soldiers went through the Indian village raping women and using axes to bash in the heads of women and children who were already dying of wounds, "many of the Squaws were killed because they would not submit to lie down and be ravished." Eyewitness William Hull wrote: "Never will I forget the scene, dead bodies were everywhere. I counted eight deep in one place and in several places they were three to five deep; all in all we counted nearly four hundred; two-thirds of this number being women and children. We found two Indian women alive whose thighs had been broken by the bullets. Two little boys and one little girl about three years of age were still living. The little girl was badly wounded, having eight flesh wounds in her body ..."
Chief Bear Hunter and sub-Chief Lehi (not a Ute name) both were killed. Mormon troops led by a United States Army Colonel, burned 75 Indian lodges, took possession of 1,000 bushels of wheat and flour, and 175 Shoshone horses. While the troops cared for their wounded and took their dead back to Camp Douglas in Salt Lake City for burial, hundreds of Indians' bodies were left on the field for the wolves and crows for nearly two years. Brigham Young obliged the federal governments request by suppling Connor with cavalry troops from the Utah Militia. Although the Mormon settlers in Cache Valley expressed their gratitude for "the movement of Col. Connor as an intervention of the Almighty" in their behalf, the Bear River Massacre was a brushed-aside-ignored-history in Utah. - John Alton Peterson Utah's Black Hawk War - Rod Miller's Massacre at Bear River (Also see Bear River Massacre)
"The Bear River Massacre has been ignored. It was not in the interest of key players—the military and the Mormons—to remember.." - Salt Lake Tribune
On a dark and somber night, April 21, 1866, another heinous crime was being committed in Circleville, Utah, the sixth and last of the massacres that occurred between the years of 1849 and 1866 , led by LDS Bishop William Jackson Allred and his son James T. S.. While Paiutes were being held captive in a below ground shelter, one by one, 26 in all -- women, men, and children, their throats were cut. The only crime that eyewitness accounts accuses these innocent victims of is that they were Indian. No less important, what is astonishing are the morbid details of the event that defies all logic. Amazing is the fact that three children managed to survive, living descendents of one the survivors many have shared with me their personal records of that horrible event. - (See Circleville Massacre)
The six massacres in Utah resulted in a total of some 766 deaths to Native Americans.
Did the Black Hawk war begin in 1865 as scholars say? Was it over in 1870? The Mormons got their "promised land" and the Transcontinental Railroad had come through. Black Hawk died in 1870. Ninety percent of the Indian population had died since the Mormons arrived in 1847. Fifteen hundred Utes were forced to walk a hundred miles to the reservation in the Uintah Basin where they were abandoned, and 500 more died from starvation in the first year. Were the Mormons satisfied? What happened next boggles the mind.
On September 20, 1919, an article appeared on the front page of the Deseret News with the headline, "Bones of Black Hawk on Exhibition L.D.S. Museum." Within the article, the writer explains that first, the remains of Black Hawk had been on public display in the window of a hardware store in downtown Spanish Fork, Utah. Then Benjamin Guarded, the man in charge of the L.D.S. Museum, acquired the remains for public display on Temple Square. For decades, the remains of Black Hawk, and those of an Indian woman and a child, were on display in the church museum on Temple Square in downtown Salt Lake City.
They say there are no known photos of Chief Black Hawk, there's one. and it appeared on the front page of the Deseret News Paper. Just 49 years had passed since Chief Nuch had been laid to rest in 1870 at Spring Lake, Utah, when members of the LDS Church plotted the robbery of his grave. Accompanying the article is a photo of William E. Croff standing in the open grave, grinning ear to ear, while holding the skull of Nuch (Black Hawk). While the living descendents of Nuch were outraged, their voices fell on deaf ears. Seemingly without conscience or remorse and church leaders made no apologies, in spite of a federal law passed in 1906 called the Graves Protection Act. Descendents of Nuch had no real legal recourse until the enactment of the National American Graves Protection Reparation Act, or NAGPRA, passed in 1994.
"To Whom It May Concern: At my leisure moments I would hunt for the spot where "Black Hawk" was buried and one day one of the miners, William E. Croft reported what he supposed to be "Black Hawk's" grave. This started an investigation and Mr. Croft along with Lars L. Olsen and myself uncovered the remains of "Black Hawk," which were buried in a large quartzite slide. The first article we saw was a china pipe, which, was laying upon the top of his head. Then we discovered the saddle, the remains of the skeleton, portion's of his horses bridle that had been buried with him; sleigh bells, ax, bucket, beads, part of an old soldier coat with the brass buttons still intact. All of these were removed very carefully, and for safety deposited them with the Spanish Fork Co-op where they were exhibited for several days. Subsequently at the suggestion of Commander J. M. Westwood I secured these remains and conveyed them to the L.D.S. Church Museum on temple block, suggesting that they should be placed on exhibition there and preserved. – Ben H. Bullock." ( See Deseret Evening News Paper 1919)
Chief Nuch was again reburied in the year 1996. This raises the question why? Why would a Christian religious institution and its leaders have no compassion or respect for the living descendents of Chief Nuch (Black Hawk) even as some were and are members of the LDS church?
It took an act of Congress, the help of National Forest Service archeologist Charmain Thomson, and the humanitarian efforts of a boy scout Shane Armstrong to find and rebury the remains of Nuch (Black Hawk) at Spring Lake, the place of his birth. Burial arrangements, coffin, and headstone were donated by citizens of Spring Lake, many who's ancestors fought against Black Hawk during the war. Ironically the grave site is on property owned by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. (See also Source Material)
We will never forget...
CHIEF BEAR HUNTER • CHIEF NUCH (BLACK HAWK) • CHIEF KANOSH • CHIEF KONE • CHIEF LEHI • CHIEF PETEETNEET • CHIEF POCATELLO • CHIEF SAGWITCH • CHIEF SANPITCH • CHIEF TABBY • CHIEF TINTIC • CHIEF WALKARA • CHIEF WANSHIP • CHIEF TABIONA • CHIEF YENE-WOODS (Jake Arropeen) • SOW-E-ETT (nearly starved) • KON-OSH (man of white hair) • TABBY (the sun) • TO-QUO-NE (black mountain lion) • SOW-OK-SOO-BET (arrow feather) • AN-KAR-TEW-ETS (red boy) • SAN-PITCH (bull rush) • KIBETS (mountain) • AM-OOSH AN-KAR-AW-KEG (red rifle) • NAUP-PEADES (foot mother) • PAN-SOOK (otter) • PEAN-UP (big foot) • EAH-LAND (shot to pieces) • NAR-I-ENT (powerful) • QUE-O-LAND (bear) • LITTLE CHIEF • LITTLE WOLF • LITTLE FEREMOTZ • OLD BATTISTE • OLD BILL • OLD DOCTOR BILL • OLD ELK • OLD MAREER • OLD PENNICH • CHIEF SAU-E-ETT • OLD SAWIET • OPECARRY (Stick In The Head) • PAH-VANTS • PANACARA • PANTS • SAM (Toady) • SANTICK • SHEGUMP • SKIPOKE • TOMWANTS • TACKWITCH • SEE-GO-ETT • TOW-ICH • NAR-A-COOTS • TO-A-BITCH • PE-DO • TO-NE-OO • OBER-ICH • SO-NEEP • WILLIAM • KID-IP • KUB-ER-UUP • CHARLEY • OLD JOHN • KAR AN KEG • PEAN UP • EBAH SAND • BNARIENT • KAR TEW ITS • PAMSOOKQUOGAND - (Taken from Peter Gottfredsons' Indian Depredations in Utah) (More names here)
My thanks to the many scholars, friends, and donors, and above all my great-grandfather Peter Gottfredson, for their help and inspiration to do this project. - Black Hawk War: Utah's Forgotten Tragedy.
*Historic Photographs by Permission From: University of Utah Marriott Library Special Collections and The Utah State Historical Society*
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