THE BLACK HAWK WAR; Utah's Native American History
Updated February 2019 Refresh page

Utah Black Hawk War; Topics & Stories

The following are topics and stories that are relevant to the Black Hawk War in Utah, histories, archive, documents, source material, facts and treaties etc..

About: Phillip B Gottfredson Black HJawk War historian.

The Gottfredson Black Hawk War ARCHIVE  A collection of articles and notes Phillip Gottfredson wrote while on his journey of discovery throughtout Utah and living with the Native Tribes across the western United States and South America.

Peter Gottfredson:

EXCERPTS From Indian Depredations in Utah 1865-1873 First hand accounts of the Black Hawk War battles they fought.

PETER GOTTFREDSON IN THE INDIAN CAMPS He spent most of time in the Indian camps during the Black Hawk War.

PETER GOTTFREDSON'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY 1857-1874 by Peter Gottfredson

EULOGY to Peter Gottfredson 1938

Source Material for the Utah Black Hawk War Project

The Timpanogos Ute Oxymoron to Utes Historians mistakenly identify the Snake-Shoshone Timpanogos Nation as being Ute. Ute and Timpanogos are two distinctly different Tribes in origin, language, and customs.

Important topics and stories of the Black Hawk War:

Black Hawk War Timeline: Phillip Gottfredson is first to publish a detailed time-line of the events of the Utah Black Hawk War. From the time-line page you can navigate this entire website and all the important topics concerning the Utah Black Hack War.

TREATIES OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR The Spanish Fork Treay with the Timpanogos Nation. There were no legal binding treaties made between Mormon settlers and the First People.

Utah's Saddest Legacy The Black Hawk War The Black Hawk War is Utah's most tradgic legacy. Not only do Native people suffer from "generational Trauma" because of the horror their ancestors experienced, but also Non-Native people, those who's ancestors committed serious atrocities against Native people - they too are looking for healing, how to deal with their own generational guilt is a reality for many people I have spoken with. These people agonize in silence, many not knowing why.

Battle Creek Massacre and Fort Utah The murders at Battle Creek were senseless, as young Antonga Black Hawk was taken captive along with over 21 women and children to Salt Lake City. Then the cold blooded murder of Old Bishop made matters worse precipitating a bloody battle at Fort Utah, and the beheading of some 50 Timpanogos Indians. Their only crime being they were Indian.

Circleville Massacre April 21, 1866 Circleville, Utah, during the Black Hawk War 24 Paiute men women and children innocent of any wrong doing, were brutally murdered, their throats cut one by one then buried in a mass grave to be forgotten. Comments from living descendents of the child who survived the massacre.

THE STORY OF TIMPANOGOS LEADER BLACK HAWK - 1847 to 1870 Detailed history of Black Hawk and the Black Hawk War.

Black Hawk Fatally Wounded at Gravely Ford The wounded Indian was none other than the famous Black Hawk, though at the time it was not known.  Mr. Snow had a narrow escape in this affair, for he was fully 600 yards from the rest and was closely pursued by three of the enemy. While getting away from them, Snow caught his saber between his legs and fell.

Black Hawk's Grave Robbed Black Hawk's remains were pur on public display in a window of a hardware store for amusement and later moved to Temple Square in downtown Salt City.


Timpanogos Chiefs and Warriors:

In Remembrance of Timpanogos Leaders and Warriors List of names of Timpanogos Chiefs and members of the Tribe during the Black Hawk War period.

Black Hawk Walkara Tabby Arrapeen Grospeen(n/a) Ammon(n/a) Sowiette Sanpitch Old Elk Squash-Head Little Soldier Old Bishop

FACTS OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR Factoids about the Black Hawk War.

THE DOCTRINE OF DISCOVERY -Genocide Concealed as Education, European Expansion See also: Christian Doctrine of Discovery: Steve Newcomb Video

BRIGHAM YOUNG ON HIS "PROPER WAY TO TREAT THE INDIANS " Treat them kindly, and treat them as Indians, and not as your equals."

TIMOTHY H. O'SULLIVAN'S MANIFEST DESTINY To establish on earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the worship of the Most High -- the Sacred and the True.

MEMORIAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF UTAH (document) Brigham Young spent one and a half million dollars to "get rid of the Indians." Download PDF 17.2 KB

THE EZRA BOOTH LETTERS It is well known that the ostensible design of the Mormonites...

Veterans of the Black Hawk War  A list of some 640 names both Indian and non-Indian from the book Indian Depredations in Utah by Peter Gottfredson.

The Danites The Danites were a fraternal organization founded by Latter Day Saints in June of 1838, at Far West in Caldwell County, Missouri.

Learning Native Ways

TRUTH IN EDUCATION FOR ALL Utah American Indian/Alaska Native Education State Plan Advisory Committee.

PROTOCOLS AND ETHICS of the Native American

RUSSELL MEANS A controversial patriot of the Lakota Nation.

THE LAND OF THE LAMANITES That the Lamanites (American Indians) a "white and delightsome people." Can you say Vitiligo?


National Museum of the American Indian Washington DC




1866 Map of the Black Hawk War See where the battles took place during the war! I never finished this map, but has some good information.

The following maps will display regardless of screen settings, but may be slow loading.  

1. Tribes of The American Indian Nation map.  

 2. Tribal Locations in America Past and Present Map

P. GREEN AT THE CIRCUS Just for laughs: "The man who takes the tickets at the circus eyed me...