"If the inhabitants of this territory, my brethren, had never condescended to reduce themselves to the practices of the Indians, (as few of them have,) to their low, degraded condition, and in some cases even lower, there never would have been any trouble between us and our red neighbors."
by Phillip B Gottfredson | Author "Black Hawk's Mission Of Peace"
Mormon leader Brigham Young's long-time admonition to the members of his church was to "Treat them kindly, and treat them as Indians, and not as your equals," came in the wake of tens of thousands of settlers who systematically spread out across the most fertile land of the Timpanogos. Many “saints” were spending time in Timpanogos camps and inviting them into their homes, to which Brigham responded to his followers in 1854, "If the inhabitants of this territory, my brethren, had never condescended to reduce themselves to the practices of the Indians, (as few of them have,) to their low, degraded condition, and in some cases even lower, there never would have been any trouble between us and our red neighbors." Inother words Mormon leaders were intolerant and judgemental of aboriginal people, and discriminated against against them because they were different.
Who were the Timpanogos?
The Timpanogos peoples were deeply connected to the land of their ancestors. They were deeply connected to the beauty that surrounded them, majestic mountains, lakes and streams. They were deeply connected to the plants in all their endless forms and uses. They were deeply connected to maintaining a harmonious relationship with the animals and all living things. They understood and respected these things as sacred gifts from a greater power. They were neither "savage" nor "heathens" rather a prosperous, and deeply spiritual civilization. For the Timpanogos the Black Hawk War was never about possessions, the land was their mother, nourishing all her children, it belonged to everyone. It was about honor.
These were the 'Eutahs' as they were called by early trappers. The Timpanogostzis that occupied the Timpanogos Lake area were terrified of the Mormons arrival. As previoisly stated, Salt Lake valley was well known by trappers and as it was the crossroads of travelers and traders long before the Mormons arrived. Going west it was the Oregon Trail. South it connected to the old Spanish Trail. The northern route Washington and Canada territories. South Salt Lake Valley was relatively a busy place, people came and went, but the Mormons were different. They came and stayed. And this raised real concern for the Timpanogos.
The Timpanogos were business people. They were traders. They had traded in horses, leather goods, silver, and many other useful goods for a long time. Their trade routes reach all the way from the Colombia River to the Gulf of Mexico.
"The Spanish Trail, was a major trade route between New Mexico and Los Angeles. A large section of the trail curves north to pass through central and southern Utah before bending south again and passing out of the state. The Spanish Trail measures 1,120 miles long and passes through New Mexico, then enters Utah from the east near the present-day town of Ucolo, Utah about 15 miles east of Monticello, and continues roughly northwesterly to about the town of Green River, Emery County. Much of the route in southwestern Utah is now Interstate 70."
And so it was that the Timpanogos Indians occupied a vast area, they prospered and thrived off the trade routes. And now we understand why we see Chief Wakara having much to do with large herds of horses.
However, the Mormon population grew and the aboriginal population declined through disease and destruction of food resources. Mormon leaders moved to disrupt their trade in horses thereby undermining the Tribes wealth and power.
Within less than three months following the massacre, Fort Utah was dismantled and moved a short distance south to the newly formed community of Provo. Wakara met with leaders from the various bands of the Timpanogos Tribe and advised them that the Mormons were a kind of people who lie about being believers in God, and that their way was to live in peace in a loving way. That he had mistakenly trusted the Mormons when they swore no harm would come to them and their lands would not be taken from them. Wakara quickly learned they were a people who could not be trusted. They did not walk their talk. Wakara kept his promises, he had helped them through the winter, now he regretted helping them, feeling betrayed and confused he had to answer to his Tribe.
Wakara certainly was capable of launching an all out attack on the Mormons and could have driven them out of Utah territory and would have been justified to do so. But that was not the way of the Timpanogos. The Timpanogos way is to preserve life, not to destroy it. Wakara approaches the situation in a more honorable way. He first sat in council with his brothers Sowiette, Sanpitch, Arapeen, Ammon, Tabby, Grospeen, and others to determine the best way to approach the situation. He meets with Brigham Young looking for answers in a diplomatic way.
In July 1853, Wakara was camped on Spring Creek near Springville, when a Mormon settler killed a member of the band he said he had mistaken for a rabbit, which led to the deaths of two more Timpanogos. Wakara demanded the killer be brought before him. His request was refused by Brigham Young. This in part precipitated the "Walker War."
Wakara and his band of warriors returned in war paint, raided the settlements of Utah, Juab, Sanpete, Millard and Iron Counties during the summer and fall. The last engagement was at the south end of Utah Lake generally spoken of as the Goshen Valley battle, which lasted about three hours; the troops taking the Indian camp. Nine Indians were killed; some of the troops and horses were shot, but none mortally.
1855, January 29th, Wakara died a sudden death. He had been poisoned by members of the Mormon Church, history scholars have told me, at Meadow Creek, in Millard County.
Moreover, its a fact, "Mormons used slavery as a tool of redemption." According to Historian Andrés Reséndez' author of "The Other Slavery," Brigham said "buy up the lamanite children, educate them, and teach them the gospel so that many generations would not pass they should become a white and delightsome people. Buy them up to save their souls."
Slavery was legal in Utah as a result of the Compromise of 1850. Some Mormon pioneers, Brigham Young included, had brought African-American slaves with them when they migrated west. In the Compromise of 1850, Congress formed the Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory allowing each to engage in slavery at their own discretion.
Following Chief Wakara's death, his brother Arapeen became Chief of the Timpanogos Nation. Wakara and his brother Arapeen were inseparable, and had road together side-by-side since their childhood days. Arapeen was chosen by the Tribe to be their leader. Chief Arapeen during his five year leadership would strive to hold his people together as bloody confrontations with the Mormons continued to escalate. Arapeen getting on in years, turned to his son Yenewood "Jake" Arapeen to lead his warriors into battle. The Tintic war, Salt Creek Battle, Mountain Meadows Massacre, Chicken Creek Battle, the arrival of Johnston's Army, smallpox spreading pandemically killing his the people, and the Bear River Massacre proved disasterous to Utah's Native people.
Johnston and his army of 2500 U.S. troops were sent to Utah in 1857-1858 while Young's good fortune was that government funds and resources were diverted to the Civil War, leaving Johnston at a disadvantage once they arrived. Brigham seized the moment, and gave the order that Johnston's wagons and food be burned. A faithful follower by the name of Lot Smith carried out the order, causing 2500 men to suffer extreme hardship during the bitter cold of winter.
Under the orders of Brigham, Nauvoo militia stole 800 of the 1,400 head of cattle with the Army there. While Mormons severely punished famished Indians for stealing even a cow, the Mormons not only stole cattle from the United States Government, they destroyed the army’s 2720 pounds of ham, 92,700 of bacon, 167,900 of flour, 8910 of coffee, 1400 of sugar, 1333 of soap, 800 of sperm candles, 765 of tea, 7781 of hard bread, and 68,832 rations of desiccated vegetables. Curiously, they were never punished.
The Bear River Massacre has been ignored. "It was not in the interest of key players—the military and the Mormons—to remember, and the decimated Northwestern Bands of the Shoshone had no voice in the nation that came to surround them. The battle, as it was initially regarded, was celebrated in Salt Lake City, especially by the military. What few records there are indicate that between 250 and 350 Shoshones died, although some suggest nearly 500 perished. Paul Hutton, a historian of the Indian Wars at the University of New Mexico, said he had never heard of the Bear River Massacre when he got his first teaching job at Utah State University in 1977." - Salt Lake Tribune
There were no legal treaties made between the Timpanogos and the Mormons. Only the federal government had the authority to make such treaties with the Indians. Congress in 1864 authorized Treaty Negotiations for the Indians of Utah Territory, and on June 8, 1865 the Spanish Fork Treaty was negotiated with the Timpanogos Nation. However, the treaty would fail ratification as it bore the signature of Brigham Young, thus leaving intact the Uinta Valley Reservation, land belonging to the Timpanogos. Congress declared "rather than associate with Brigham Young on such an occasion, they would have the negotiations fail; they would rather the Indians, than the Mormons, would have the land." - Commission of Indian Affairs Annual Report 1865, O.H. Irish
The environment of the Utah's Timpanogos was now drastically altered from logging and from the introduction of domesticated cattle and horses numbering in the thousands. Settlers farming domesticated crops and cattle meant that Natives were less able to depend on the natural environment for their food supply. While the Timpanogos were excellent and well-seasoned hunters and gatherers, it required a large expanse of land to sustain their communities. The settlers knew this, and so systematically killed and drove away the deer and elk, and slaughtered massive numbers of native buffalo. Colonists almost always settled on the most fertile land. They emptied the rivers, and streams, of fish by over-fishing them with gill nets. The Native people were forced to travel greater distances, expending more energy, to find food. Ultimately, they were faced with the agonizing realization that they were being forced by starvation into surrendering.
Changing the conditions upon which the aboriginal people thrive was a key element in taking over Native American lands. It meant logging, constructing forts and towns, diverting streams, introducing thousands of domesticated cattle, plowing and fencing vital grass lands and planting domesticated crops, massive slaughter of buffalo herds, which devastated the Timpanogos and their precious resources. These settlers were less dependant upon natural sources for their food because of farming techniques, while the Indian people were forced to travel greater distances, requiring greater effort to find food, leaving the Timpanogos with no choice other than to prey upon the settlers’ cattle, or die of starvation. Another example recorded is in just one day alone, 6790 fish were taken from the Provo River with gill nets and sent to Salt Lake as tithing, ignoring the present and future needs of the Indigenous people.
Brigham and his followers were, by no means, strangers to persecution or to being demoralized. Having been exiled from their homes in Illinois by angry mobs, they sought refuge in Utah territory. John W. Gunnison wrote, "It's a curious matter of reflection, that those whose mission it is to convert these aborigines by the sword of the spirit, should thus be obliged to destroy them." The ambiguities and ironies in the mistreatment of the Native people are perplexing. It would seem natural that the Mormon people would show compassion toward the Timpanogos. But Brigham's relentless disregard for Timpanogos land rights and utter intolerance of their culture is cloaked in his rhetoric to "Treat them kindly, and treat them as Indians, and not as your equals." It then comes as no surprise that, unfairly, far more emphasis has been given by historians to Brigham's Indian policy efforts, than Timpanogos leaders who demonstrated humility and willingness to compromise. The Timpanogos are scarcly cited for their peace efforts. Meaningless and numerous so-called "treaties" were divisive and broken at will by Mormon leaders.
As Brigham continued using church funds waging war against the Timpanogos, he engaged such noted serial killers as "Wild Bill" Hickman, Porter Rockwell, and John D. Lee. Lee baptized Hickman into the church. Lee and Rockwell were sealed to Brigham Young in the temple. Lee was the leader of the massacre at Mountain Meadows. Hickman and Rockwell were serial killers and Brigham's personal body guards.
Shortly before Fort Utah had been erected in Utah Valley in 1849, three men: Rufus Stoddard, Richard Ivie, and Gerome Zabrisky began to heckle an Timpanogos edler, whom whites called Old Bishop, near the fort. They accused him of stealing the shirt he was wearing from off a wash line. Old Bishop denied that he stole the shirt from anyone, saying he had made a fair trade for it. Ivie aimed his gun on Old Bishop and told him to take it off. The old man stood his ground and refused. Ivie took aim directly at his head and pulled the trigger, murdering Old Bishop in cold blood.
Concerned that what they had done would spark retribution from the Timpanogos, the men then gutted the old man. They then filled his cavity with rocks, and tossed him in the Provo River. Quoting from History of the Utah Stake by James Goff, one of the colonists stated later: "The men who killed the Indian ripped his bowels open, and filled them with stones preparatory to sinking the body." However, scholars claim that the argument was not over a shirt, but over cattle that had been stolen. That old double standard, we can steal your land and home, but don't steal our cattle.
In 1861, President Lincoln set aside over four million acres of land in the northeastern region of Utah as reservation land for the Timpanogos. But before he did, he asked Brigham Young if he felt the land was suitable. Brigham answered, "The only purpose the land has is to hold together the two halves of the world." In other words, it was worthless and therefore perfect for a reservation. That President Lincoln would ask Brigham his opinion suggests that Mormon leaders had a working relationship with the President, in spite of the fact that only four years earlier Brigham had committed the treasonous act of destroying government property, leaving Johnston's army stranded—a crime for which neither Brigham nor the perpetrators were ever held accountable.
At the same time the United States was engaging in the Civil War, and Kit Carson has forced the Navajo peoples to Redondo, The Black Hawk War begins in the winter of 1864-65. Its interesting to note that Connors, Brigham Young, and Kit Carson were each 30 degree Masons. One cannot begin to imagine the difficulties Arapeen had to deal with, and the toll it took on him as a human.
Then the Black Hawk War, "a small band of Indians was camped near Gunnison, Sanpete County (Utah). It is said that they contracted Smallpox, and that many died. The Indians seemed to think that the white people were to blame in some way for this and were threatening to kill the whites and steal their horses and cattle in an attempt to get them to leave. Arrangements were consequently made for a meeting between the Indians and the whites at Manti on the 9th of April, 1865, to talk over matters.
A number of prominent Timpanogos came to Manti. They met at Jerome Kempton's place (about four blocks south of town), and it appeared that an understanding would be arrived at, but a young Chief (Yene-wood) also known as Jake Arapeen (Chief Arapeen's son) could not be pacified. Peter Gottfredson, my great-grandfather wrote that "John Lowry, believed drunk at the time, told the Chief to keep quiet, when someone yelled, ‘look out he's getting his arrows!’ Lowry jerked the Chief (by his hair) off of his horse, and was about to abuse him, when some men stepped in and broke them up." Lowry stated, "I told him a time or two to stop and to permit me to finish my talk. Just then someone called out ‘lookout, he is getting his arrows!’ I rode up to him and turned him off his horse, and pulled him to the ground. The bystanders interfered and we separated. In those early days it was at times imperative that harsh measures should be used... We had to do these things, or be run over by them. It was a question of supremacy between the white man and the Indian."
John Lowry made it clear that it was "a matter of supremacy" and that it was the whiteman who had the right to run over the 'Indian'. Not surprising he would see it that way when in 1850 Mormon apostle George A. Smith, a cousin to Church Founder Joseph Smith Jr.., arrogantly and without compassion declared that the Indian people "have no right to their land" and he instructed the all-Mormon legislature to "extinguish all titles" and get them out of the way and onto reservations, violating Utah Indian's inherent rights as a sovereign nation by virtue of the fact they were inhabitants of the land for hundreds if not thousands of years prior to the Mormons arrival.