Past Utah Black Hawk War Research Updates


Chief Walker and Colorow update.

It appears Timpanogos Chief Walker is still being confused with Ute Chief Colorow on the internet. "Chief Walkara (c. 1808 – 1855; also known as Wakara, Wahkara, Chief Walker or Colorow) was a Shoshone leader of the Utah Indians known as the Timpanogo..." - Wikipedia. Colorado Ute Chief Colorow died 1888, Timpanogos Chief Wakara died 1855. This article does clarify that Wakara was Chief of the Timpanogos and that Colorow was Chief of the Ute. Definate progress being made and we are very pleased to see it happen.

The name Walker is white man's spelling. Descendants of Timpanogos Chief Walker spell his name Wakara. The earliest account we have found the writer said his name spelled phonetically would be Yah-Keera. Out of respect for his descendants we always use their version Wakara in all our articles.

Another similar mistake is the name "Jake Arapeen." Mary Meyer who is a direct descendant of Timpanogos Chief Arapeen explained that Jake and Arapeen are two separate people. Jake is the son of Arapeen. Chief Arapeen became the Timpanogos principle leader following Wakara's death in 1855. By 1865 Chief Arapeen made his son Jake the tribes War Chief. And when negotiations fell apart in Manti between John Lowry and Jake, Black Hawk was made War Chief. In that same year of 1865, Arapeen died from smallpox and Tabby became the principal leader of the Timpanogos. Tabby called upon Black Hawk to take the place of Jake.

HAPPY NEW YEAR everyone!!



They Just Don't get it!

We reported back in Oct. 2018 (see below) that articles on the internet are confusing Timpanogos Chief Wakara with Colorado Ute Chief Colorow. Have they corrected their mistake? No! They are still doing it! If you Google Chief Walker Colorow" you will see what we mean.

The Ute Nation is comprised of seven distinctly separate Bands all of whom have their roots in Colorado. The Mouche, Capote, Weeminuche, Tabaquache, Grandriver, Uintah and Yampa are the Bands that comprise the Utes. Colorado Ute Chiefs were Chief Ouray who died Aug 24, 1880, Chief Colorow died 1888, and Chief Ignacio died December 9, 1913. There is no record of these Chiefs being in Utah.

Timpanogos Chief Wakara died in 1855 in Utah. Colorado Chief Chief Colorow died 1888 in Colorado.

Chief Wakara, or Walker as the Mormons call him, was the principal leader of the Timpanogos who are Snake-Shoshone. The Timpanogos were first discovered by Spanish explorer Juan Revera in 1765, and later Dominguez and Escalante in 1776. They describe in their journals having met "the bearded ones" or Eutahs who spoke Shoshone. "Turunianchi the Great" was the leader of the Timpanogostzis, and Cuitza-pun-inchi, Pan-chu-cun-quibiran, and Picu-chi were his brothers. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch. Moonch was the father of Chiefs Sanpitch, Yah-Keera (Walker), Arapeen (father of Jake Arapeen), Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, and Grospeen who were known as the "Royal Bloodline." Six of the seven brothers were the uncles of Antonga (Black Hawk) who was the son of Sanpitch.

We also published to the internet September 2018 that the Timpanogos are Snake-Shoshone and are not related to the Colorado Utes. We posted documentation making it clear that the Colorado Utes were not in Utah until 1881 and where not the principle Tribe Mormon colonists encountered when they came to Utah in 1847, rather it was the Timpanogos Nation. Thus far the facts we have presented have not been disputed, and we have seen many websites correct their stories, but the majority have not. We believe there are several reasons most have not. The documentation we have provided testifies to the fact that Utah's history of the First Nations people is seriously flawed and must be corrected. It appears people would rather believe in lies than embrace the truth. We stand by our documentation and believe it will stand the test of time and hopeful that eventually Utah historians will honor the truth regardless of any unintended consequences it may have.


Phillip B Gottfredson's new book My journey to Understand BLACK HAWK'S MISSION OF PEACE is being published by Archway Publishers from Simon and Schuster and is scheduled to be released in the spring of 2020. Taking 20 years to research and write, Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is a powerful and compelling story of Mr. Gottfredson's extraordinary quest to find the truth regarding the Black Hawk War in Utah while living with Native American people of Utah and throughout the western United States.

Noted Utah artist Carol Pettit Harding was commissioned by Mr. Gottfredson to not only illustrate the book, but Carol felt personally compelled to do a forensic reconstruction of Timpanogos leader Black Hawk. There being no known photos of the notorious leader, Carol devoted to the project spent nearly two months bringing Black Hawk to life at her studio in Pleasant Grove, Utah. Working from a historic photo taken in 1919 when Black Hawk's grave was robbed, the photo of the grave-robber is seen holding the skull of Black Hawk in his hand. The photo was enlarged revealing the details of his skull, and from this enhancement Carol was able to masterfully reconstruct his features.

Carol Harding's reconstruction of Black Hawk is just one of many features of Mr. Gottfredson's book. Phillip introduces to the reader the Timpanogos Nation and the first to do so, according to Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Tribe Mary Meyer. Phillip is the first to have been given access to the tribe's extensive historical records, some thirteen thousand pages filled with the Department of The Interior proving the Timpanogos Nation's peoples were are the original inhabitants of Utah. Mr. Gottfredson gives a detailed account of the Timpanogos from when Spanish explorers Dominguez and Escalante discovered them in 1765, to their personal account of the Black Hawk War, and how the tragedy of the war continues to play out in their lives to present day.

But the book is more than just the history of the war. The book chronicles the 20 years Phillip spent living with the First Nations peoples learning of their religious beliefs and life-ways that Phillip describes as "life changing" as he eventually embraces Native ways as his own. Phillip describes; "Everywhere I went, the message was the same — we are all related having come from the same common source, Mother Earth. All who spoke to me told of the seven sacred teachings: Honesty, Love, Courage, Truth, Wisdom, Humility, and Respect. I traveled north, south, east, and west, and I never found one person I did not like. I never found a single “savage” among them."


We have been on the internet since 2002 and we have conducted many experiments over time. Bottom line is it's great content that attracts visitors and keeps them coming back. We have always strove to bring you the most accurate and up-to-date information on the Black Hawk War in Utah. Even when we have at times wrong we have quickly corrected our mistakes as we are dedicated to the truth. Reporting the truth has not always been kind us.

For example, four years ago when we introduced the Timpanogos Tribe for the first time, and claiming the Utes weren't even in Utah during the time of the Black Hawk War and couldn't have been involved, our traffic plummeted. Though we had the hard facts to back our claim, we lost a good number of followers. Still in spite of the numbers we have persisted in our claim to be true. And recent statistics show our numbers are slowly returning to where they were before we broke the news. However, we realize there are those who have written books ignoring these facts intentionally or unintentionally, they we expect, will fight us and make every effort to discredit our findings to serve their own interests. Fair enough, but we will stand by what we believe to be true until proven otherwise. Four years have gone by and no one has challenged us.

We value and respect all who visit our website. We are aware of the responsibility we have not only to those whose stories we tell, but also to our visitors, and we will always honor that in a good way.


Great news! The book project is moving along and it looks like it will be released in the spring of 2020. It has moved through the copyright phase into the design phase now. Soon it will go to the printing press.

An important step in the process was getting the Timpanogos Nation to give their blessing on the book. Author Phillip B Gottfredson made two trips to the Uinta Valley Reservation up in north-eastern Utah to spend time with the Timpanogos during the summer. Mary Meyer who is the Chief Executive of the Tribe read the manuscript twice. Phillip then made changes to the story line according to Mary's suggestions ensuring that the Tribe is accurately portrayed. The collaboration between Mary and Phillip is what makes this account unique among all others.

Those who have read the book are deeply moved and become very emotional saying "it is a story that has to be told. Phillip is was very inspired when he wrote this. The twenty years he spent living with Native Americans is in itself amazing, his spiritual experiences he had with the Native people are extraordinary to read about."

We are excited about Phillip book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. We will be announcing the release date soon.


Full funding for the book "Black Hawk's Mission of Peace" by Author/Historian Phillip B Gottfredson has been raised. Thanks to several donors from around the United States who by their generosity and extraordinary kindness we are able to meet our obligation to have the book published. The exact release date of the book has not yet been determined. But we are hopeful it will be before years end.

We are very grateful for the tremendous support from many people who have helped us achieve our goal.


Author and Historian and founder of this website Phillip B Gottfredson just signed a book deal with Simon and Schuster/Archway!


My Journey To Understanding,,, BLACK HAWK'S MISSION OF PEACE

We are proud to announce that historian Phillip B Gottfredson has completed his Black Hawk's Mission of peace that has been twenty years in the making. The book is now ready to published.

Phillip recently visited the Timpanogos Nation and spoke with Chief Executive Mary Meyer, who you may know is a direct descendant of Chief Arapeen. Mary read the manuscript and told Phillip she was pleased with the book, and gave Phillip her blessings to have it published. Mary and her brother Perry also gave him a few more personal stories to add to his book, and made some minor changes to the manuscript. Some technical changes at it pertains to Treaties. This is significant as no writers in the past have cared enough to get permission or opinions from the Native people they are writing about.

Publishing a book is expensive. Mr. Gottfredson has set up a Go Fund Me account in hopes of raising $3800 needed to pay for the cost of publication. "I want this to be a nice book, one that the Tribe can give their children and their children for generations to come" said Phillip.

Mr. Gottfredson's goal is to have the book published and on the market in a couple months. If you would like to contribute you can make a donation through Pay Pal by clicking on the 'Donate" button above, or if you prefer please visit our GoFundMe account.




It is important to make a donation in support of Historian Phillip B Gottfredson's ongoing research which helps to keep the Black Hawk War Project going. And so it is also important to thank all those who have donated, we deeply appreciate your generosity!

More good news! Mr. Gottfredson has just completed his book titled "Black Hawk's Mission of Peace" that has been over twenty years in the making. An official announcement will be made soon regarding the book's release, but we are so excited we couldn't wait to let our followers know. While it's still in manuscript form at this time, there is some work to be done before it will be ready for publishing. But, those who have had the privilege of reading some of the manuscript have already placed their orders. Mr. Gottfredson's book chronicles his 20 years of research on the Black Hawk War while living with the descendants of Timpanogos Chiefs Walker (Wakara) Arapeen, Tabby, and Black Hawk, and various Native American Tribes throughout North America. He describes his extraordinary spiritual journey among the Native people as being "forever life changing" filled with intrigue and mystery.

Our official announcement to be made soon!


2018 was a banner year for The Black Hawk War; Utah's Native American history website. We spent hundreds of hours improving the performance side of things, and the results have been staggering. Google reported our visits have increased as much as 1600% over the previous year! That means we are reaching a much broader audience.

Moreover, Mr. Gottfredson added a lot of new material and spent considerable time rewriting old material. Our content is more accurate and in-depth than before. Our addition of the Black Hawk War Timeline page has been a great hit with our followers who are students, teachers, and historians, enabling greater access to all the material we have accumulated over the past 20 years of research.

More importantly we have been consistent in our primary goal being to educate people about the Black Hawk War in Utah from the perspective of Utah's Native American peoples who were most affected by this monumental tragedy in American history. We have through our efforts corrected key aspects of Utah's Black Hawk War history and are seeing other related websites following suit. One example is Wikipedia where we have seen significant changes, most important is the Timpanogos Nation. When we introduced the Timpanogos as having played a major role in Utah's Black Hawk War there was much skepticism among our followers. Because we backed our claim with documentation provided by Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation our claim stood strong against opposing points of view. We are confident our work will continue to stand the test of time and bring a much needed and unique perspective to Utah's history.

We are looking forward to another great year, and a sincere THANK YOU to all our loyal fans!

Update 10/22/2018 It appears Google has heard our complaint and corrected Colorow's photo being labeled as Walker.

Ute Chief ColorowColorow's photo here I have seen many times and in numerous articles mislabeled as Timpanogos Chief Walker or Walkara. This is an insult to both the Timpanogos Nation and to the Ute Nation. Historians also refer to Chief Colorow as Ute, when in fact he was Comanche. He was captured by the Mouche of the Southern Utes, and raised from childhood by the Mouche, Capote, and Tabaquache of the Colorado Ute peoples. Though he was born a Comanche, he lived his life as a Colorado Ute, and eventually became their leader. Colorow never came to Utah, and the Comanche is a branch of the Shoshone. So, Colorow was born a Shoshoni and raised as a Southern Ute. He was the Chief of the Ute Mountain Utes and is buried in Ignacio, Colorado. Colorado Ute Chiefs were Ouray who died Aug 24, 1880, Colorow died 1888, and Chief Ignacio died December 9, 1913. The Timpanogos are Snake-Shoshone and indigenous to Utah, but no relation to the Utes. Walkara was a leader of the Timpanogos who died in 1855 in Utah. Visit: Timpanogos Nation * Ute Tribe * Ute Mountain Utes *


Research Notice 10/22/2018:

"Uintah Ouray Reservation" Nonexistent

How many times have you heard TV, Radio, Newspapers, and even court documents say or use the term "Uintah Ouray Reservation?" Well, did you know the fact is the Uintah Ouray Reservation is non exist ant.

"The Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation" is only a constitutional name NOT A RESERVATION and never was a reservation." Black Hawk Productions has recently added a new page to it's website titled "Utah's Timpanogos Are Snake-Shoshoni; No relation to Utes." And on this page Black Hawk War Historian Phillip B Gottfredson talks about the Uintah Ouray Reservation as never being ratified by Congress and therefore does not exist. The following is an excerpt from that page.

"The Northern Ute Tribe of Utah is a federally recognized Tribe. The "NORTHERN UTE TRIBE" wasn't created until 1937, under the constitutional name "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation". The "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation" is only a constitutional name NOT A RESERVATION and never was a reservation. Congress is the only one that can create a reservation, and there is no congressional act that created any reservation called the " Uintah & Ouray Reservation." The Northern Ute Tribe lives on the Uintah Valley Reservation as does the Timpanogos Tribe.

The Executive Order signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1861 that created the Uintah Valley Reservation does not make any mention of the "Uintah Ouray Reservation" and/or make any reference to the "Utes" or Ute Indians of Colorado or "Confederated Utes of Colorado" what-so-ever. What President Abe Lincoln said was "that the Uintah Valley, in the Territory of Utah, be set apart and reserved for the use and occupancy of Indian Tribes of Utah." Signed by The President Abraham Lincoln Executive Office Oct. 3, 1861, with the Presidents words "Let the reservation be established, as recommended by the Secretary of the Interior." It was then enacted into law on May 5, 1864, by Act of Congress.

In 1886 then-President Chester Arthur by Executive Mansion (same as Executive Order) designated a small strip of land on the Uintah Valley Reservation for the "temporary" use by the Colorado Utes at the Uintah and Ouray Agency to graze their cattle, which is today known as Ouray. President Arthur's Executive Mansion order did not abrogate or diminish the Uintah Valley Reservation. And in a recent 10th District Court ruling July 2017, the court said that the Uintah Valley reservation has never been abrogated or diminished and remains intact."

Why the Uintah Valley Reservation is being called the Uintah Ouray Reservation remains a mystery. Learn more at Utah's Timpanogos Are Snake-Shoshoni; No relation to Utes.



Timpanogos Tribe of Utah On The Internet

By Phillip B Gottfredson - 09/2018

Efforts to help correct Utah's inaccurate Native American history and bring attention to the Timpanogos Nation has begun to take hold on the internet.

Until four years ago, like most people I believed the Black Hawk War was between the Ute Nation and the Mormons. All the histories written said so. Why would we believe any different? That was until four years ago when I got a call from the Timpanogos Tribe's Chief Executive Mary Meyer. Mary respectfully informed me she was intrigued by my website and with all the research I have done. “I have been trying to get a hold of you..” she said, “to tell you that you have the wrong Tribe.”

Needless to say, I went into my defensive mode, after all I had invested more than a decade researching the Black Hawk War, “what do you mean I have the wrong Tribe” I responded. “Haven't you ever heard of the Timpanogos” Mary asked? Puzzled I said, “well... yes, maybe, aren't they Ute?” During that phone conversation Mary Meyer said enough to convince me it was probably a good idea I speak with her in person.

We met at a mutual friends home in Salt Lake, and what was supposed to be a hour meeting turned into four years and one of the greatest highlights in my life. As Mary has patiently educated me on a little known Tribe that history has marginalized. Or, to put it more succinctly, the Mormon church and it's historians have buried under a mountain of half-truths, ambiguities, platitudes, and omissions.

Upon getting acquainted with the Timpanogos peoples, the first thing I offered them was that I wanted to build them a website free of charge. It took a month to build it, and we launched in July of 2014. Since then we have watched it propagate the internet with surprising results. In 2014 a search for 'Timpanogos Indians' would result in hundreds of pages regarding Mount Timpanogos, and everything else associated with Mount Timpanogos, except the Tribe, from whom the mountain gets it's name. That has changed, and the Timpanogos Tribe of a thousand people, finally have a voice.

Of coarse I had to rewrite all 83 pages of my website replacing the word 'Ute' with Timpanogos. And now with two websites on the internet about the Timpanogos, we are seeing the name 'Timpanogos' everywhere. Not only that, many other sites we see are correcting their stories about the Black Hawk War and also replacing 'Ute' with... you guessed it, the Timpanogos Tribe!

Just a few days ago the Tribe updated their news page, and you should take a look at . And while you're there take a look around at their history etc., if you haven't already.

In closing I just want to say, for the past four years I have been spending all my summers with Mary and her people here on the Uinta Valley Reservation. Same as my great-grandfather did. He spent much of his time living with the Timpanogos and during the Black Hawk War. And now I understand why he too loved being with them.




Dedication of the Circleville Massacre Memorial

Circleville Memorial

Dedication of the Circleville Massacre Memorial I would describe as being a fair and accurate depiction of the tragic event of 1866 when 27 Paiute Koosharem men women and children were brutally murdered. Approximately 25 members of the Paiute tribe were present at the dedication along with some 40 or so people comprised of historians from the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, along with towns folk and the press. I was there along with Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation, and a direct descendents of Chiefs Arapeen, Walkara, and Tabby. The ceremony lasted about an hour. And following the ceremony there was talk among the Paiute and historians of locating the burial place of the Massacre victims and a possible repatriation of their remains to bring closure to those whose ancestors were involved in the atrocity. (See: Circleville Massacre)