Author & Historian Phillip B Gottfredson published this detailed timeline of the events of the Utah Black Hawk War from the arrival Mormon colonists in Utah in the year 1847, to the the American Indian Religious Freedom Act in the year 1978. “Native American history is an integral part of this country’s history,” Gottfredson says. “After all is said and done, after the Black Hawk War and all the suffering it caused, I make this one conclusion: It isn’t about the war. It isn’t about religion. It isn’t about owning land and having material wealth. It’s not about power. In the end, it’s about the human condition. There is no such thing as race. Race is man’s invention to create divisions and separations, the building of walls and fences to segregate us from one another, to have power over each other. There is but one race, the human race. It’s about humanity, human equality, aboriginal rights and a sovereign people.”

Reading left to right, all of the events of the Black Hawk War listed in this timeline are in chronological order according to year, month, day, followed by the number of deaths of both Timpanogos Indians and Mormon colonists, and the event with description. Just click on highlighted links to read the story of the events listed.

Note: The timeline is frequently updated, you may want to refresh this page.

Timeline of the Utah Black Hawk War: 1847 - 1872:

Year Month Indian Deaths White Deaths
Battles and Events

Indian Removal Act was signed into law by Andrew Jackson its purpose to remove all Native peoples east of the Mississippi to the western regions of the Mississippi. Virtually the entire Native population in the southeastern section of the United States were forced to relocate to the west known as "The Trail of Tears."

The significance of the Indian Removal Act as it pertains to the Mormon's Black Hawk War, is that there can be no doubt that it played a major role in creating the mindset that white-man had a right to take possession all the land belonging to indigenous people, irregardless of aboriginal rights, vested treaty rights, and sovereignty rights.

1847 July 24     Mormons enter Salt Lake Valley Trouble for the Timpanogos Nation in Utah began July 24, 1847. Brigham seeing the valley said, “Its enough, this is the right place, drive on.”

Timpanogos camped at nearby Hot Springs when Mormons arrive (north of Salt Lake)


Kanosh, Tabby, Washakie, Little Wolf, Wanship, Little Chief, Kone, Blue Shirt, Big Elk, Old Elk, Opecarry, Old Battiest, Tintic, Portservic, Sowiette, Angatewats, Petnick, Walkara, Graspero, Niequia, Antero,

1848       Little Wolf in battle with Wanship not available at this time
        Timpanogos Chief Wakara confronts Brigham Young Timpanogos leader Wakara had warned Brigham Young upon their arrival, that he and his people were not welcome to settle on the land of his ancestors.
        Hidalgo Treaty of 1848 Hidalgo Treaty of 1848 was signed wherein the United States agreed to recognize Indian land holdings, and to allow Indian people to continue their customs and languages.
1849 Jan 18th     George Albert Smith orders removal of Indians Apostle George A. Smith gave the command to remove the Indian people from their land.
  Feb. 29 9   Battle Creek first massacre of Timpanogos by Mormons Young Black Hawk taken prisoner, family murdered. Little Chief was wet with tears and his horse wet with sweat.
  Mar. 10     Provo settlement commenced  
        An-kar-tewets confrontation When they were within a few miles north of the Provo River they were stopped by An-kar-tewets, a warrior of the Timpanogos, who stood before the men telling them to go back where they came from, that they were not going to make any settlement on their land.
  Mar. 12th     Fort Utah Built At first the occupants at the fort attempted to turn the place into a trading post between the Natives and the whites. Trading buffalo hides to the Indians could been seen as a sacrilege to the Indian.
  Aug. 1st 1   Old Bishop murdered near fort Utah The three men, Rufus Stoddard, Richard Ivie, and Gerome Zabrisky began to heckle the man, and accused him of stealing the shirt he was wearing from off a cloths line. "The men who killed the Indian ripped his bowls open and filled them with stones preparatory to sinking the body."
1850 Jan. 31st     Wells drafts orders for Captain George D. Grant to "exterminate the Timpanogos," Wells drafted orders for Captain George D. Grant to "exterminate the Timpanogos," known as "Special Order No. 2". Isaac Higbee was the bishop of Fort Utah and he met with the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles at the Fort when they agreed the only way to keep Fort Utah would be to exterminate the Timpanogos.
  Feb. 5th     Old Elk thrown out of fort sick with measles Old Elk came to the fort asking for medicine for his people who were sick from the disease. A soldier took the chief by the nap of his neck and threw him out of the fort.
  Feb. 7th     Col. Grant and troops sent to Fort Utah

Timpanogos Old Elk, Walkara , Kone, Black Hawk, Kanosh, Battiest, Tintic, Portsovic, Angatewats, Old Sowiette, Old Petnich, Tabby, Old Uinta, Niquia, Antero, Kanosh, Opecarry,

Troops: Grant, Huntington, Cap. Conover, William H. Kimball, Robert Burton, Lot Smith, James Ferguson, John R. Murdock, Ephraim Hanks, A. J. Pendelton, Orsen K. Whitney, Johnson, and Isham Flynn

1850 Feb. 7th     Black Hawk shows up at Fort Utah as prisoner of Col. Grant Brigham Young refers to Antonga as "Black Hawk"
  Feb. 9th 70   Battle at Fort Utah Now that Fort Utah had been established on land that was most essential to the Timpanogos
        Two Timpanogos survivors Pernetta (Chief Aropeen's daughter), and Pick Bishop Joseph Stacey Murdock takes Timpanogos children.
        Dr. Blake at Fort Utah Ordered troops Abner Blackburn and James Or to go out and behead each of the frozen corpses lying about in the snow.
  April     Fort Utah dismantled and moved east into Provo  
  May     Cattle and horses raided at Fort Utah  
  June     Chief Wakara (Walker) vows revenge  
        Cattle and horses Raided Richville  
1851 March 5   Porter Rockwell murders 5 Indian prisoners  
    9   Captain Wm. McBride kills 9 Indians Skull Valley  
  May 1   Death of Squash Head at Springville  
      1 Indian raid on mill Richville Custer killed.  
    9   Goshen Valley Battle  
    15 est   Mormon Militia raids Indians at Black Rock not available at this time
1852       The mystery year where nothing is recorded about the Black Hawk War. Utah Legislators sanction slavery.
  Feb. 4     The Act in Relation to Service, made slavery legal in Utah. "The requirement for ownership was... with Indian slaves only having to be in possession of white person. Utah is unique in that it had an active enslavement of both Africans and Indians."
1853   20   Cattle Raid Payson not available at this time
  July 6     Walker Statement: At the request of Maj. [Jacob] Holeman Ind. Agent for UT. Ter. I (M.S. Martenas) held a conversation with Indian Chief Walker respecting his feelings and wishes relative to the whites settling [sic] on this lands, and on the lands of the Indians generally.
  July 17     Ivie kills Indians; begins Walker War James Ivie
        Wakara Declares War The Walker War
  July 19   1 Indians kill Alexander Keele at Payson  
  July 23 7   Provo seven Indians killed not available at this time
        Allreds settle Spring City not available at this time
  Aug. 10 1   Attack on Willow Creek (Mona) Isaac Duffin
1853 Aug.   2 Parley's Park John Dixon, John Quayle, John Hoagland John Knight
      1 Fillmore William Hatton
  Sept. 29 20   Salt Creek Canyon 20 Indians killed not available at this time
    6 1 Goshen Battle C. B. Hancock wounded not available at this time
  Sept. 30 8 4 Uintah Springs 8 Indians and 4 Mormons killed  
  Oct. 2 8   Nephi 8 Indians killed  
    2   Moshoquop and son killed  
  Oct. 4   2 William Mills and John Warner killed Manti  
  Oct. 14   1 Fernee Tindrell killed at Santiquin  
1853 Oct. 25   12 Gunnison Massacre

Pants, Mareer, Jim, Carboorits, Nunkiboolits, Tomwants, Koonants, Skipoke, Doctor Jacob, Wahbits, and Jimmy Knights.

Whites: Captain Gunnison, R. A. Kern, F. Creutzfeldts, Wm. Potter, and seven men.

      4 Uintah Springs near Moroni  
  Nov. 6     Sanpete County Chases Sawmill burned  
1854 Jan 6     Spring City Allred settlement burned  
  May     Treaty with Walker and Kanosh  
  Aug. 8   2 William and Warren Weeks killed  
1855 Jan 29 1   Walkara died poisoned by Mormons Buried in hills above Meadow
        Walkara's brother Arapeen becomes Chief  
  July 19     Salmon River Mission not available at this time
        Salmon River Mission abandoned not available at this time
1856 Feb. 21 5   Tintic War 1856 In the year 1856, the Indians, a part of the Timpanogos, again became hostile, and a sufficient number of them went on the war path to make it expensive and annoying to the settlers.
  June 4   4 Salt Creek Canyon June 4th. Jens Jorgensen and wife, Jens Ter- klesen and Christian E. Kjerluf were massacred by Indians in Salt Creek Canyon, June 4th, 1858 while traveling unarmed on their way to Sanpete Valley.
1857 Sept - 11   125 Mountain Meadows Massacre Paiute wrongly blamed for 125 whites murdered by members of LDS Church.
  Sept 20     Peter Gottfredson arrives from Denmark Peter Gottfredson Autobiography
1858     2 Chicken Creek On October 15th, 1858,--The remains of and Samuel Brown, of Fillmore, Millard County, were found is a state of decomposition near Chicken Creek bridge, Juab County. They had been murdered by Indians on October 7th.
        Johstons Army Arrives Brigham Young orders Lot Smith to burn armies wagons.

 A faithful follower by the name of Lot Smith carried out the order, causing 2500 men to suffer extreme hardship during the bitter cold of winter.

        Disease is spreading rampant among Indian population  
1860   1   Camp Floyd Peaceable Indian murdered  
        Chief Arapeen Dies and his brother Tabby becomes Chief of the Timpanogos Nation. Tabby makes Arapeen's son Jake (Yene-wood) war Chief.  
      1 Deep Creek Tooele Mail Station attendant killed, horse stolen May 28th, 1860 The Indians attacked the mail station at Deep Creek, Tooele County, shot a man and stole several horses.
1861       Lincoln set aside land for the Uinta Valley Reservation for the Timpanogos (Contiguous Mountain peaks)  
1863 Jan 29 593  

Bear River Massacre of Snake-Shoshone

Also See video

In 1863, 593 Shoshone men women and children were brutally massacred at Bear River.
        Peter Gottfredson living in Sanpete and Severe Valley in Indian camps  
  April 12 4   Little Soldier bravely attacks Gen. Connors outfit April 12th. Timpanogos warrior Little Soldier bravely attacks General Connors outfit and was killed by Porter Rockwell. "I will ever remember the appearance of Little Soldier and his Indians. None of them wore much clothing, a breech cloth and moccasins were their uniform; their faces were painted black, all seemed to have guns and pistols, and some had bows and quivers of arrows."
  May 5   1 Boxelder Sagawitch Band not available at this time
  June 10   2 Cedar Valley Stage attacked not available at this time
  July 30 12   Shell Creek Station not available at this time
        Peter Gottfredson in Thistle Valley  
1864       Timpanogos being forced on reservation  
1865       Uintah Ouray Agency was created  
  March 28     Brigham Young Promises Sanpitch father of Black Hawk Brigham Young made the following promise to Chief Sanpitch of the Timpanogos at Spanish Fork. He said, "Sanpitch, Sowiette, Tabby and all of you, I want you to understand what I say to you. I am looking out for your welfare...
1865 April 9     Manti John Lowry triggers Black Hawk War "It was a matter of supremacy between the whiteman and the Indian."
  April 10   2 Barney Ward and Peter Ludvigson killed  
        Mormon Population about 50,000  
        Leadership is passed from Arapean's son Jake to Black Hawk who then becomes War Chief John Lowry is accused of starting the Black Hawk War
      2 Twelve Mile Creek not available at this time
  April 12   2 Salina Canyon not available at this time
  June 8     Signing of the Spanish Fork Treaty The Spanish Fork Treaty was negotiated with the Timpanogos Nation. However, the treaty would fail ratification as it bore the signature of Brigham Young, thus leaving intact the Uinta Valley Reservation, land belonging to the Timpanogos.
  July 18     Grass Valley Massacre The soldiers then surrounded the camp and opened fire on them killing women, men, and children. Two managed to escape, and one little boy was found laying next to his dead mother was taken custody.
  July 26 2   Attack at Glenwood not available at this time
  Oct. 17   7 Ephraim seven settlers killed not available at this time
  Nov. 25   4 Raid on Circleville (see Circleville Massacre)  
1866 Jan 20 7 2 Pipe Springs not available at this time
  March 12 1   Sanpitch taken captive at Nephi Sanpitch, father of Black Hawk, Murdered.
  April 2 1 3 Short Creek not available at this time
  April 13 7 1 Salina Canyon seven Timpanogos killed not available at this time
  April 14 3   Indians break jail in Manti three are killed not available at this time
  April 16     Kimball's & Conover's in Manti not available at this time
      1 Christian Larsen Killed Spanish Fork not available at this time
    3   Salina vacated 3 Timpanogos killed not available at this time
    2   Fort Sanford Santick and Shegump killed not available at this time
    2 2 Marysvale  
    1   Marysvale Little Indian girl murdered  
      1 Spanish Fork not available at this time
    1   Springville not available at this time
  April 21 26   Circleville Massacre And so it was that one by one they were led out of the cellar, 24 in all. There were women, men, and children, and they were first struck from behind on the head to stun them, then their throats were cut.
  April 22 2   Salina Vacated not available at this time
    2   Fort Sanford Seagump and one other killed not available at this time
  April 26 4 2 Little Diamond Battle Chief Mountain wounded.
  April 28     Circleville abandoned  
  May 26     First Indian Raid on cattle Heber  
  June 6 ?     James Ivie kills Timpanogos Chief Panacara (Arapeen) NOTE: Chief Arrapeen died of smallpox in 1865. Which contridicts this account. It may have been James Ivie killed Arapeen's son Jake.
  June 10   2 Scipio Black Hawk takes 350 head of cattle James R, Ivie and Henry Wright killed Round Valley Scipio, Utah
  June 10     Battle at Gravely Ford Black Hawk & White Horse Wounded  
  June 18 1   Chief Sanpitch Murdered Black Hawk's father
  June 24   1 Thistle Valley not available at this time
  June 26   2 General Erastus Snow sends 60 men to Gunnison Captain Andrus killed not available at this time
  July 16 2   Second Raid on cattle Heber not available at this time
  July     Old Peace Treaty Tree 1866 July-August Bishop Canute Peterson of Ephraim, Utah paid a visit to the ailing Timpanogos leader Black Hawk who had been wounded in battle at Gravely Ford near Richfield, Utah.
  Aug.     Third raid on cattle Heber not available at this time
  Aug. 20     Fourth raid on cattle Heber not available at this time
  Oct. 8     Fifth raid on cattle Heber not available at this time
  Sept. 18 6   Red Lake battle 6 Timpanogos killed General Snow wounded not available at this time
  Oct. 27 3   Attack on Lee's Ranch not available at this time
        Nearly 70 Mormon villages evacuated not available at this time
1867 Jan 14     Black Hawk meets with Tabby See also: Tabby
  Jan 18 11   St. George Col. Pierce and Andrews not available at this time
  Mar 21   4 Glenwood-Black Ridge not available at this time
  April 15     Gen. R.T. Burton ordered to Sanpete not available at this time
  April 20     Glenwood, Richfield & Monroe vacated not available at this time
  April 22     Binder's infantry leaves SLC for Sanpete not available at this time
  June 1   1 Fountain Green Louis Lund killed not available at this time
  June 2   2 Twelve Mile Canyon Major Vance & Sgt. Holtz Killed  not available at this time
  Aug. 10     Black Hawk sends word to Franklin He wants peace  
  Aug. 12     *Black Hawk tells Agent Head stop fighting  
  Aug. 20     Heber Treaty Tabby and Joseph Murdock meet  
        Black Hawk begins his Mission of Peace begins  
      1 Sanpete Capt. Wm. Binder's Cavalry Adam Paul wounded
      2 Spring City J. Meeks and A. Johnson killed
        Spring City Raid not available at this time
    12   Pine Valley Eleven Indians Killed  
  Sept. 5   1 Warm Creek John Hay Killed
1868 Mar 21   1 Fort Mohave Edwin Wooley killed
  April 1 3   Raid on Kane County not available at this time
  April 1 2 Battle at Rocky Ford Justusen and Wilson killed, White Horse killed, the one Black Hawk had rescued at Gravely Ford
    2 1 Buckhorn Springs near Beaver Wm. James Allred
        Salt Creek Canyon Tabiona, James Ivie,
  July 11 4   Battle at Rock Lake not available at this time
  Aug. 19     Strawberry Treaty August 19th Black Hawk credited for it's success and Head 
  Nov. 10 2   Wm. Allred Kills Two Indians murders 2 Indians
        Indian Gratitude  
1869 March 22     Brigham Young submits bill to Congress for reembursement of 1.5 million dollars spent in church funds to "get rid" of the Indians of Utah. This document MEMORIAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF UTAH is housed at the Mt. Pleasant Relic Home on main street. You can also download it here Download PDF 17.2 KB
  May 10     Transcontinental Railroad completed  
    1   Jake Arapeen murdered Circa 1869 Exact date not known, covered up.
1870       Black Hawk's Mission of Peace Travels 200 miles horseback from Cedar City to Spring Lake
  Sept. 26     Black Hawk dies at Spring Lake  
1872     3 Glenwood "the white horse chief" Shena- Vegan. Present were Hans Gottfredson, Peter Oldroyd, Archibald Oldroyd,
  June 6   1 Twelve Mile Creek Niels Heizelt killed
  Aug. 12   1 Tabby can't control his warriors boy Stewart killed Spanish Fork
  Aug. 13   1 Fairview Nathan Stewart killed
  Aug. 17   1 Mt. Pleasant telegraph office Jeremiah Page killed by Richard Smith dressed as an Indian
  Sept. 17     Peace agreement at Mt. Pleasant not available at this time
      1 Fairview Nathan Stewart Killed
        Treaty at Springville Tabby signed
  Sept. 26   1 Spring City Daniel Miller Killed Daniel Miller killed, Peter Gottfredson present
        Mormon population about 180,000  
Total   932 238 Timpanogos Population 2300  
*** ***** ***** ***** *Post War Events * Post War Events * *Post War Events*
1880       Colorado Utes killed an unprincipled Indian agent Nathan Meeker  
1881       Congress to impose upon the Ute Indian peoples the Relocation Act forcing Colorado Utes into cohabitation with the Timpanogos on Uintah Valley Reservation Meeker Massacre "The Utes Must Go"
1886       President Chester Arthur by Executive Mansion set aside temporarily land for the Colorado Utes to graze their cattle, known today as Ouray.  
1887       Dawes Allotment act Also known as the General Allotment Act, the law allowed for the President to break up reservation land held in common by the members of a tribe, into small allotments which were then parceled out to individuals.
1892       Chief Tabby Dies at Tabiona He is believed to have been 113 years of age
1894       John Lowry States Cause of Black Hawk War at the Reynolds Hall at Springville.
1898       Utah becomes state  
1909       Government Census Indian population 2300 Non-Indian pop 370,000 Utah
1919       Members of LDS Church loots Black Hawk's Grave.  
1934       Reorganization Act Pres. Roosevelt over turns Dawes Act being unconstitutional. It was designed to undo some of the devastating problems caused by the Dawes Act. It did away with the boarding house schools, ended the allotment of tribal lands. recognized tribal governments and encouraged tribes to adopt constitutions, prohibited lands from being taken away from tribes.
1937       The Ute Tribe was formed 1937 Adopts as it's constitutional name "The Ute Tribe of the Uintah Ouray Reservation" Note: There does not exist a reservation named the Uintah Ouray.
1953       Ernest L. Wilkinson co-authors the Termination Act. The Termination Act proved very destructive to Tribe nation wide and was finally blocked by Presidents Kennedy, Nixon, and Johnson. Enacted by Congress, it was intended to end all relations between the Federal Government and the Native Nations. It was yet another attempt to assimilate the American peoples into white-man's culture. It was intended to grant full rights and privileges of citizenship to the Native peoples, and tax their land.
1996       Black Hawk's remains reburied at Sping Lake, Utah It took an act of Congress, the help of National Forest Service archeologist Charmain Thompson, and the humanitarian efforts of a boy scout Shane Armstrong to find and rebury the remains of Black Hawk at Spring Lake, the place of his birth.
1975       Self Determination Act "Native American people were now able to operate their own schools. Native Americans now have the chance to take control of their own education bringing their own languages, beliefs and philosophies to their schools."
1978       The American Indian Religious Freedom Act 1978 The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (commonly abbreviated to AIRFA) is a US federal law and a joint resolution of Congress that was passed in 1978. It was created to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights and cultural practices of American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts and Native Hawaiians.