Sorry, this is NOT Utah's Black Hawk! This is a photo of a drawing of a Kiowa Apache man called Black Hawk. This photo originates from the archives of the Smithsonian. There is no known photo of Utah's Black Hawk. "Black Hawk" was a name church Prophet Brigham Young in jest called the Ute's leader. So it became that because of Brigham Young's superciliousness "Black Hawk" is the name by which he is most commonly known, and to also say. much to the annoyance of his living descendents today. In fact there were some three or more Indians the whites referred to as Black Hawk in Utah history.
The photo above has long been said to be Black Hawk. This is a photo of a drawing of a Kiowa Apache man called "Black Hawk." This photo originates from the archives of the Smithsonian. And it's interesting the name "Black Hawk" is not in the Apache language either. There is no known photo of Utah's Black Hawk.
Compare the skull of Black Hawk on the left to the photo on the right. Could this be Black Hawk? What is missing is an important fact that Utah's "Black Hawk" was born into a family of legendary leaders and his Ute name was Nuch, he was so named in honor of his people the Nuchu, a sacred name the Utes call themselves. Nuch was born into a royal bloodline of many honorable leaders going back hundreds of years. For example: Chief Walkara, Chief Yenewoods, Chief Sanpitch, Chief Sow e ett, Chief Tabby, Chief Old Elk, Chief Kone, Chief Colorow, Chief Old Uinta, and Chief Mountain are just some of Chief Nuch's blood relations. There never were any Black Hawk Indians in Utah, or elsewhere for that matter, and none of the Indians in Utah called themselves Black Hawk or Antonga! (See a list of Ute Names at the bottom of this page.)
The following is interesting I came upon while reading the story of the "Black Hawk War" in Illinois in the late 1830's. For those who may not be aware of there being another Black Hawk War in the United States prior to the one in Utah the following will give you brief overview.
1832 whites settling in the Illinois country and exerted pressure on the Native Americans. A treaty of 1804, which had no real claim to validity, provided for removal of the Sac and Fox west of the Mississippi. A Native American Indian leader, Black Hawk (1767–1838), was born in the Sac village near the site of present Rock Island, Ill., and had fought for the British in the War of 1812, denounced the treaty and resisted removal. Years of intermittent skirmishing followed.
In 1831 the whites used force to impose a new treaty that forced the Yuhtas, one of five bands that split off from the Nokoni centuries before. The Yuhtas, or Ute as the white man would call them, in 1541 acquired from the Spanish explorers, led by de Soto, a magnificent animal they would name Sherri wan'qua or the Dog God. The Yuhtas would soon master the horse, leave the land of the sun and return to the home of their ancestors in the fertile valleys of the Rocky Mountains. They transitioned from sustaining themselves on small birds and animals to hunting large game, elk, deer and buffalo.
The horse then was sought after by all the Indian tribes which quickly
brought the Ute/Shoshoni Nation into power. They became the pivotal source
and supplier of horses to all the other tribes. Once they acquired the gun
they were a fierce and proud people.
A brief genealogy of the Shoshone People: They were first called the Chickimec (the Dog People) then there was two divisions, the Chickimec became the Nokoni; the Aztec, and Hopi (Moki). The Nokoni became the Shoshoni Nation which split into five bands, the Snake, Bannock, Ute, Comanche and Paiute.
Following the invasion of the Conquistadors who robbed them of their gold and enslaved a good number of them, then came the fur trappers. During the years of the 1700's to the early 1800's trappers would all but empty the rivers and streams of Oregon, Idaho and Utah of the beaver population. Literally millions of pounds of pelts would be shipped to Europe making fur merchants wealthy beyond belief. During this time and subsequent years to follow the British, French and Americans would divvy up Indian land, waging war against each other when necessary to gain control.
Through it all the 16 bands of the worn torn Utes and Shoshone would emerge victorious having survived wave after wave of Euro-invasions. So when the Mormons arrived in 1847 and settled in the arid Salt Lake valley the valley had long become the crossroads of the west as trappers, explorers and the like passed through on their way to Oregon, and California. But an old medicine chief Wuna Mucca of the Ute had prophesied the coming of the missionaries decades before their arrival. And come they did, to worship God almighty, to save the heathens from hell, and get rich.
Utah Black Hawk War Treaties
There were no treaties made between the Ute and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or the state of Utah. They were only agreements. Only the federal government had the authority to make treaties with the Indian people. - Floyd O'Neil
Even so, according to Utah history accounts, "treaties" were made. But they were never ratified by the United States Government. Yet the Native people were made to believe they were legal and honored those agreements, whereas the Church changed and modified those agreements at will.
The following are the words of Ute leaders expressing how they felt about signing treaties. The year was 1865. They were discussing the Spanish Fork Treaty:
Chief Kanosh spoke (Bean interpreting)
"We have agreed that four chiefs shall do this talking. I do not see what use it would be to trade the land where there are so few of us whatever we would trade for would be all gone soon whether blankets or hats or shirts or money the money would soon go in the stores and the other things would soon be gone. If the Americans buy the land where would the Mormons who live here go? (The Utes had been told by Brigham Young if the Utes don't turn over the land to the Mormons the U.S. Government would take it anyway.) Will the lord take them up to his country? I think this is the Mormon's land, the bishops land with the Utahs let them all live here together. I do not want to cut the land in two let it all remain as it is. It is all right to let us stay where we are let me stay at corn creek and visit back and forth. Suppose Brigham our eldest brother was to die where would the Indians all run to when we know he is at salt lake city it is all right Brigham is the great captain of all for he does not get mad when he hears of his brothers and friends being killed as the California captains do the best thing is for the superintendent to give us our blankets and shirts and not talk about trading the land but let us live and be friendly together give all of us blankets and shirts squaws and all and do not make us feel poor but clothe us up."
Sanpitch rose to speak Bean interpreting
"I do not question the paper but I do not want to trade the land nor the title to the land it used to be lord's land but now it is the Mormon's land and ours. The maker of the land is probably dead and buried now. (?) But this is good heavy land lots of water and rocks and I want it to stay here and us to stay here with it. The whites make farms get wood and live here on the land and we never traded the land let them live here and us live here too. (While speaking the chief became increasingly excited and closed angrily.) If the talk is for us to trade the land in order to get the presents I do not want any blankets or any clothing I would rather go without than to give up my title to the land I occupy."
Brigham Young rose to speak Huntington interpreter
"San pitch Sow e ett Tabby and all of you I want you to understand what I say to you I am looking for your welfare if you do not sell your land to the government they will take it whether you are willing to sell it or not this is the way they have done in California and Oregon if you go to Uintah they will build you houses make you a farm give you cows oxen clothing blankets and many other things you will want and then the treaty that colonel Irish has here gives you the privilege of coming back here on a visit you can fish hunt pick berries dig roots and we can visit together the land does not belong to you nor to me nor to the government it belongs to the lord but our father at Washington is disposed to make you liberal presents to let the Mormons live here if you will go over there and have your houses built and get your property and money we are perfectly willing you should visit with us do you understand that Kanosh?" Kanosh and others "We do" Young "We feel to do you good and I know that this treaty is just as liberal and does everything for you and for your people that can be done now if you can understand this you can see at once that we do not want anything to wrong any of you Indians it is enough."
Tabby spoke Bean interpreter
"The hearts of the Indians are full they want to think wait until tomorrow let us go back to our lodges and talk and smoke over what has been said today the Indians are not ready now to give up the land. They never thought of such a thing."
Sow e ett Bean interpreter
"I am the father of you all. I have always been a friend of the Americans Mr.. Young he has never thrown away my friendship for the Americans. Superintendent Irish that is what everybody says of you. After awhile Brigham and the Mormons came here I saw him and he was my son my friend when I met Young we talked and understood each other. Me and my children the Utah's and Brigham and his children. When some of my children stole horses and acted bad did I break my friendship? No never. I do not want to see it. I am old my heart is very weak now but it is good."
Though they agreed to the terms of the so called Treaty, and the Ute's lived up to their words, aside from some token gifts given to the Ute's Brigham never kept his promises. The Treaty was never ratified by the U.S. Government while the Mormon took away hundreds of thousands of square miles of land and forced the Utes onto the Uinta reservation where nearly 50% died from starvation. It was a matter of which of the three would control the land, the Utes, the Mormons, or the United States Government. A year later Sanpitch was murdered.
The Old Peace Treaty Tree
1866 July-August Bishop Canute Peterson of Ephraim, Utah paid a visit to the ailing Ute leader Black Hawk who had been wounded in battle at Gravely Ford near Richfield, Utah. Taking gifts of sugar, hams, bread, beads, molasses, tea, coffee, tobacco, flour, medicines and clothing. The Chief was grateful for the presents and a friendship developed, which put a partial end to the hostilities. Five important chiefs called upon Canute Peterson's home and established peace pacts. As they talked, Sarah Peterson prepared a meal of the good things that could be brought from the cellar and pantry. After the meal, Black Hawk and Canute went across the road and smoked the pipe of peace under the old juniper tree, now referred to as the "peace treaty tree." The old Juniper tree still stands on the west bank of the creek. They agreed that they would not fight as long as water continued to run in the creek. A Black Hawk Peace Treaty marker was erected there in 1987. (See the Peace Treaty Tree story here.)
Chief Tabby Story
In the spring of 1867 at Heber City, a Ute was captured after butchering a cow. He expected to be killed but Bishop Murdock told him he would be released if he would carry a personal message to Chief Tabby requesting a meeting to negotiate an end to the long and needless war. After Chief Tabby received Joseph’s message, a government Indian agent tried to meet with Tabby but Tabby said he would only talk with “Old Murdock!”
1867 Aug.. 12th several accounts explain that while near the Uinta reservation Black Hawk and his warriors in a prearranged meeting, met with Indian Superintendent Franklin Head. The Indian people, it appears, had respect for Franklin. Well, it is said that Black Hawk told him that he and his warriors were tired of fighting and wanted peace.
Black Hawk, with his massive army could have caused far more depredations to the saints, and certainly had just cause. But in a surprising change of tactics he elected to give up his campaign of vengeance to take a more altruistic course. But, at that moment all hopes of there ever being freedom, or holding onto their land... was gone. And Nuch knowing that the Transcontinental Railroad would soon be completed meant an even greater influx of Anglos into Utah.
The Chief knew what he was doing. Taking upon himself the agony of his people, Black Hawk handed Franklin his knife and would ask him to cut off his hair to symbolically demonstrate his sincerity in wanting peace. To understand what happened here, we need to examine closely the cultural beliefs of the Utah Indian before we can appreciate this powerful gesture. This was no small matter reader, and is well worth the effort to understand for it underscores the humanity and humility of Nuch as a leader. Making a personal atonment was common all the way down to south America among the Mayan. Black Hawk is not surrendering, he changing his tactics to ensure the survival of his people. Remarkable person to make such a gesture.
1867 August 17th, Black Hawk met with his brother Chief Tabby, who had made preparations to join his warriors with Black Hawk's men. Tabby had sent the women and children to an area where they would be safe, it was time to settle the score with the Mormons. But, Black Hawk convinced his brother that it would be better to end the war. The odds were clearly against them, to continue would mean certain annihilation of their people.
1867 August 19th, hundreds of Northern Ute people accompanied Chief Tabby and his six sub-chiefs went to Heber City. They went directly to Tabby's old friend Joseph Murdock’s home at 115 East 300 North where they camped in his yard and pasture. The following day, August 20, four of Murdock’s five wives who were living in Heber City, and the townsfolk prepared a feast on a lot owned by John Carroll. This lot is located across the street from the Murdock home. A large pit was dug to roast enough beef to feed everyone. Each woman had been asked to bake a dozen loaves of bread. Rows of tables were loaded with corn and whatever the townsfolk could find in their pantries and larders to feed their guests.
The feasting and talk lasted all day. Murdock and Tabby exchanged a few simple gifts. The leaders then went across the street to an upstairs room in Murdock’s home where a peace pipe was smoked and a treaty of friendship was signed. Chief Tabby signed his name and the six sub-chiefs made their marks.
This peace agreement ended the fighting between the settlers in Heber Valley and the Northern Ute people. It was one of the first agreements in a series of peace pacts made between Mormon settlers and Ute leaders that lead to the eventual end of the Black Hawk War.
The news of Black Hawk's tactical maneuver spread quickly. Brigham Young grasped the moment, and took credit for having reconciled the war through vigilance, and kindness, underscoring his policy “to feed them and not fight them” had paid off. The Rocky Mountain News paper quoted Brigham Young's boasting, "If you want to get rid of the Indians try and civilize them," speaks to Brigham's 'two hearts.' See Brigham's Discourses here.)
Black Hawk did not surrender to Brigham Young. Taking upon himself the agony of defeat, and the humiliation of his people, if he surrendered, he surrendered to a higher power, for he knew it was futile and wrong to expose his people to more torment, while fighting a loosing battle. But the Chief's fight for freedom didn't end here. He follows his heart and changes his strategy as he campaigns for peace three more years prior to his death in 1870. ( See treaties click here )
Conclusion: There was only one treaty signed between the Ute and the United States government that was ratified. That treaty was in 1868. (See Treaty Here)
"In many ways the Native people of Utah continue to suffer following the Black Hawk War. They continue to suffer," according to Forest Cuch, from limited land-base, scattered and substandard homes sites, intertribal political strife, poverty, poor health, and ineffective educational programs for their children. In 1861 President Lincoln set aside four million acres of land which became known as the Uinta Reservation. Today less than 25% of that land remains intact, the rest was turned back to public domain." The Paiute suffered again late in their history, "when, during the 1950s, after decades of failed policies and programs, the U.S. government under President Eisenhower implemented the Relocation/Termination Programs as the official Indian policy of the Federal Government" and as a result "their reservation lands" where again "taken from them." Forrest Cuch - Executive Director of Indian Affairs
Native American Indians were not given citizenship status until 1924. In Utah the right to vote was not granted to Utah Indians until in 1990's.
The American Indian Religious Act of 1978 extended the right to Native Indians to protect sacred lands religious practices, Rare film footage taken at a demonstration on the steps of the capital building in Salt Lake reveals blatant opposition to religious freedom in 1983. Native Indians continue to struggle for their rights to this day.
ARROPEEN - Brother of Walkara
ANTONGUER aka Antonga aka Antoñgua aka Black Hawk - Historical accounts use the name Antonga, or Antonguer saying that Black Hawk went by this name also. Names were often spelled phonetically. Accounts also theorize that the name is French and that the name may have been given to Black Hawk by French trappers. I argue the name is Spanish/American. I have never been able to find the name in the French language. I believe the name is not French but Spanish. Spelled "Antoñgua." Translation of this name is not available, but it does exist in the Spanish language. How Black Hawk got this name is not known, however my theory is since the Ute had considerable contact trading with the Mexicans, and they also occupied Utah territory the name was given to him by Mexican trappers and not French.
The exact date of birth of Antoñgua is not known, the best estimation is circa 1838.
AUKEWAKETS - Taken prisoner at Manti and Brother VanBruen cut his throat, and held him to the ground until he died .
AUG-A-VOR-UN - Sub Chief of Black Hawk
BATTEST - Brother of Tintic, he was shot point-blank through the head in his teepee at Cedar Valley.
BLUE SHIRT - Murdered at Battle Creek
*BOQUOBITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*CARBOORITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*Gunnison Massacre - Deseret News Article Vol. 4 March 30, 1854
*Several articles appeared in the Deseret News regarding the murder of the Gunnison party presenting strong evidence that Indians were not involved but were blamed for the event.
"Our present object is to call public attention to certain facts connected with the murder of Captain Gunnison and his party, which indicate that it was not the work of the Indians, as we were at first led to believe. We have conversed upon the subject with several old mountaineers, men who have spent a large portion of their lives in the Rocky Mountains, and who are familiar with the Indians of that region; and they have informed us that the facts and circumstances, as stated in the published accounts of the affair, indicate most strongly that it was not the work of the Indians. In the first place, the murder could not have been committed by the Pauvants, the tribe inhabiting the region of country in which it occurred, because Kern, and others of the party, were killed with firearms; and those Indians have no guns, and do not understand their use. The Utahs live remote from the spot where the tragedy was performed, and, besides, they are at peace with all white men, except the Mormons. Beale and Heap passed through the country of the Utahs without molestation of any kind. On the contrary, they were kindly received; game was killed for them; and the Indians informed them that they made war only upon the Mormons who had taken away their lands. Gunnison, also, had passed through the country of the Utahs, and they made no attack upon him. There are others, and still stronger circumstances, which, in the minds of those acquainted with Indian usage, are conclusive of the fact that the murder was not committed by them. Prominent among these, is the fact that the slain were not scalped. -- The scalp is the Indian's trophy. To the Indian warrior it is more valuable than booty. It is the proof of his valor, and confers upon him rank and distinction in his tribe. The accounts say that the bodies were mutilated; that both of Gunnison's arms were cut off; and one of Kern's. This proves that the authors of the deed were not so much hurried to have scalped their victims, if they had chosen to do so; for an arm is more difficult to remove than a scalp. Another circumstance is that notes, surveys, and other papers of the party were carried away. -- Papers are valueless to an Indian. He never takes them away, and usually scatters them upon the ground as useless.
"The Danites were a fraternal organization founded by Latter Day Saints in June of 1838, at Far West in Caldwell County, Missouri. During their brief period of formal organization in Missouri, the Danites operated as a vigilante group and took a central role in the events of the Mormon War. The exact nature and scope of the organization, and its connection to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a matter of some dispute among historians.
In June 1838, a group of zealous Mormons began meeting together in Far West under the leadership of Sampson Avard, Jared Carter, and George W. Robinson to discuss the problem of the dissenters. The group organized under the name "The Daughters of Zion," but they soon became known as the "Sons of Dan."
"I knew of many men being killed in Nauvoo by the Danites. It was then the rule that all the enemies of Joseph Smith should be killed, and I know of many a man who was quietly put out of the way by the orders of Joseph and his Apostles while the Church was there. It has always been a well understood doctrine of the church that it was right and praiseworthy to kill every person who spoke evil of the Prophet." - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
DOCTOR BILL - Died of gun shot wound in self defense. Marysville, 1866.
*HUNKOOTOOP- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*JIM - Brother of Mareer- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*JIMMY KNIGHTS - Shot Captain Gunnison during Gunnison massacre.- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*KOONANTS - Son of Tom wants - Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
LITTLE CHIEF - Timpenogos Attacked Wanship's band in 1847. It is said he lead Militia to the family of Black Hawk who allegedly stole cattle, which is not true it was his son Little Wolf. Black Hawk was only in his early teens at this time. It was Brigham Young who sounded the alarm his horses had been stolen. He ordered Capt. Scott to take 44 troops and deal with the thieves. Then when it was discovered Young's horses were not stolen, Scott and his men ignored Brigham's orders to return to Salt Lake and attacked and murdered Black Hawk's family. It became known as the Battle Creek Massacre.
LITTLE WOLF- The son of Little Chief. Timpenogos Ute, it is said he Led the Mormon Militia to the encampment of Kone and Blue shirt which commenced the Battle Creek Massacre. The question remains weather he volunteered or was threatened to tell Capt. Scott where the encampment was.
MOAB- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
NUNKIBOOLITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
OLD BATTISTE Old Elk's brother. Brother to Tintic. Died from gun shot to the head at point blank range by white man, in Tintic's tent, they were camped about a mile from Cedar Fort. 1856
OLD BISHOP - Murdered by Richard A. Ivie, Y. Rufus Stoddard, and Gerome Zabrisky, he was then gutted and the cavity of his body filled with rocks and tossed in the Provo River. It was alleged he had stolen a shirt he was wearing. Historian Will Bagley states the cause was stolen cattle. His name was given him by whites.
OLD ELK aka (Pareyarts) aka (Big Elk) aka Para-yah, died from wounds at Fort Utah, after he had asked the Mormons for medicine as he was sick with measles, but was thrown out of the fort and refused help.
OLD MAREER - Took part in the Gunnison massacre 1853. Died from gun wound in skirmish at Meadow Creek. He had caused a slight wound on the chest of a white by jabbing him with an arrow because the white man was trying to take from Mareer his arrows during a peaceful exchange of gifts.
OLD PETNICH n/a
CHIEF BLACK HAWK - Black Hawk's Ute name was Nuch. Noochew is the name the Ute call themselves which means people of the mountain. Another name Nuch went by was "ANTOÑGUA" which is a Spanish name. Nooch was often referred to as the "friendly Indian" by many.
CHIEF ANGIZEBL- Present during signing of treaty ending the Black Hawk War 1872
CHIEF ANTERO- Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.1872
CHIEF BEAR HUNTER - Murdered at Bear River Massacre1863
CHIEF KANOSH - Pahvant Chief-Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.1872... Born 1821, died 1884.
CHIEF KONE - Murdered at Battle Creek (blood relative to Black Hawk)
CHIEF LEHI - Murdered at Bear River Massacre 1863
CHIEF MASHOQUOP Pahvant war Chief Father of Old Mareer Father killed by white men.
CHIEF PETEETNEET - His son's held prisoner by Captain Hancock as ransom, was told he must sign a treaty before his sons would be released. He signed. Brigham Young then had a house built for him, a ploy to teach other Indians. Close friend of Tintic.
CHIEF ROMAN NOSE - (This was not his Ute name, this is a name the whites called him) Sub Chief under Chief Kone killed in the Battle Creek Massacre. Five Natives killed, no whites, for stealing some cattle. Fought at Fort Utah.
CHIEF SAGWITCH- Escaped murder at Bear River Massacre 1863
CHIEF SANPETE - Father of Old Uintah circa 1750
CHIEF SAN-PITCH- Father of Nuch (Black Hawk) and Kibets (Mountain) Murdered by George Tucker and Dolph Bennett at Birch Canyon between Fountain Green and Moroni. 1865. Brother of Wakara.
CHIEF SOWIETTE - Wanted peace with the whites.
CHIEF TABIONA - Present during signing of treaty of 1868. Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.
CHIEF WHITE HARE- Present during signing of treaty ending the Black Hawk War 1872
CHIEF WHITE HORSE - Led attack at Rocky Ford (aka Gravely Ford) near Vermillion, Utah. Two whites killed, one wounded. 1868. Black Hawk was wounded while trying to rescue White Horse.
OPECARRY aka (Stick-In-The-Head) - Murdered at Battle Creek massacre. Timpenogos Ute wanted peace with the whites. He got his name by whites, because he always wore a mahogany stick done up in his hair.
PANTS - Brother of Mashoquop - Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
PEANITCH- Indian guide
SAM aka Toady- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
SANTIK - Murdered at Louder's Spring. - Express rider for Black Hawk
SANPITCH- Principal Ute leader during Black Hawk War, was murdered by Dolf Bennett Father of Black Hawk and Tabby.
SHEGUMP - Murdered at Louder's Spring. Express rider for Black Hawk.
SHENANAGON - Sub Chief of Black Hawk killed Major Vance and Sergeant Houtz.
STICK IN THE HEAD - See Opecarry above.
SKIPOKE aka "Doctor Jacob"- Assailant at Gunnison Massacre
SQUASH HEAD - Killed himself rather than remain prisoner of Joseph Kelly and Bishop Don C. Johnson. He may have actually been murdered.
TACKWITCH - Murdered by Dolph Bennett, he cut his throat with a hunting knife.
TINTIC- Sub Chief of the Utes - Murdered by gun shot when attacked by John Clark and George in is camp. 1856
TOMWANTS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
WAHBITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
WALKARA - Brothers Arropeen, Sanpitch, Tabby, uncle of Black Hawk. Walkara was born about 1808, and so had been a boy of about seven when his grandfather Sanpete had been murdered by the Spaniards. Walkara is a Shoshoni name means "hawk."
"WILD BILL" HICKMAN"... Hickman was baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1839 by John D. Lee. He later served as a personal bodyguard for Joseph Smith, Jr.. and Brigham Young. Hickman was a member of the Danites. In 1854 Hickman was elected to the Utah Territorial Legislature. He was an important figure in the Utah War (The Black Hawk War used to be called). He torched Fort Bridger and numerous supply trains of the Federal Army. He was a serial killer. (Also see Fort Utah here)
Around Sept. 1871, while under arrest for the murder of Richard Yates years earlier, Hickman wrote an autobiography/confession in which he confessed to numerous murders." - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
He was born about 1725 in the Uintah Basin and became chief of the Uin-tah Utes. In about 1755 Uin-pah-quint was challenged in his leadership by his brother, Pah-yampa. Uin-pah-quint was deposed and compelled the leave the Basin with a few of his loyal followers. He removed to the territory of his cousins, the Timpanogos Utes, on the banks of the Timpanogos River (Provo River). Because of a shortage of food, the Timpanogos urged them to move on southward and establish their own settlement. They moved to the Pequi-nary-no-quint (Spanish Fork River; the Ute name for "Stinking Water" because of the nearby sulphur springs). Uin-pah-quint had three wives and many children. Three of his sons grew in stature and became chieftains over surrounding domains. Oquirrh became the leader of a tribe which lived in the Tooele Valley, on the western slope of the mountains which today bears his name; Pah-vaun moved farther south with his followers, who became known as the Pahvants, and settled near present day Nephi, on chicken Creek; the third son was known as Pan-a-pitch.
Ute History: The Ute occupied the region above indicated when they came to the knowledge of the Spaniards, who were the first Europeans to encounter them. They were the first to make use of the horse introduced by Spanish explorers in 1776. Our first intimate knowledge of them is derived from the diary of Fray Silvestre Velez de Escalante, who penetrated 'their country in 1776. For a brief period they were organized into a confederacy under a chief named Tabby (Taiwi). The first
A treaty between the United States Government and the Ute was concluded December 30, 1849. By Executive order of October 3, 1861, Uintah Valley was set apart for the Uinta Band, while the remainder of the land claimed by them was taken without formal purchase. By a treaty of October 7, 1863, a reservation was assigned to the Tabeguache, and the remainder of their land was taken without formal purchase. On May 5, 1864, various reserves, established in 1856 and 1859 by Indian agents, were ordered vacated and sold. By a treaty of March 2, 1868, a reservation was created in Colorado for the Tabeguache, Moache, Capote, WimiNooch, Yampa, Grand River, Uinta, and other bands, who relinquished the remainder of their lands, but by an agreement of September 13, 1873, a part of the reservation, was ceded to the United States. When it was found that a portion of this last cession was included in the Uncompahgre Valley, the part so included was retroceded to the Ute by Executive order of August 17, 1876. By Executive order of November 22, 1875,the Ute Reservation was enlarged, but this additional tract was restored to the public domain by an order of August 4, 1882. By Act of June 18, 1878, a portion of the Act of May 5, 1864, was repealed, and several tracts included in the reservations there under established were restored to the public domain. Under an agreement of November 9, 1878, the Moache, Capote, and WimiNooch ceded their right to the confederated Ute Reservation established by the 1868 treaty, the United States agreeing to establish a reservation for them on San Juan River, a promise which was finally fulfilled by Executive order of February 7, 1879. On March 6, 1880, the Southern Ute and the Uncompahgre acknowledged an agreement to settle respectively on La Plata River and on the Grand River near the mouth of the Gunnison, while the White River Ute agreed to move to the Uinta Reservation in Utah. Sufficient agricultural land not being found at the point designated as the future home of the Uncompahgre, the President, by Executive order of January 5, 1882, established a reserve for them in Utah, the boundaries of which were defined by Executive order of the same date. By Act of May 24, 1888, a part of the Uinta Reservation was restored to the public domain. The tribe has since been allotted land in severalty.
In Remembrance of Ute Leaders and Warriors
CHIEF BEAR HUNTER • CHIEF ANTOÑGA NUCH (BLACK HAWK) • CHIEF KANOSH • CHIEF KONE • CHIEF LEHI • CHIEF PETEETNEET • CHIEF POCATELLO • CHIEF SAGWITCH • CHIEF SANPITCH • CHIEF TABBY • CHIEF TINTIC • CHIEF WALKARA • CHIEF WANSHIP • CHIEF TABIONA • CHIEF YENE-WOODS (Jake Arropeen) • SOW-E-ETT (nearly starved) • KON-OSH (man of white hair) • TABBY (the sun) • TO-QUO-NE (black mountain lion) • SOW-OK-SOO-BET (arrow feather) • AN-KAR-TEW-ETS (red boy) • SAN-PITCH (bull rush) • KIBETS (mountain) • AM-OOSH AN-KAR-AW-KEG (red rifle) • NAUP-PEADES (foot mother) • PAN-SOOK (otter) • PEAN-UP (big foot) • EAH-LAND (shot to pieces) • NAR-I-ENT (powerful) • QUE-O-LAND (bear) • LITTLE CHIEF • LITTLE WOLF • LITTLE FEREMOTZ • OLD BATTISTE • OLD BILL • OLD DOCTOR BILL • OLD ELK • OLD MAREER • OLD PENNICH • CHIEF SAU-E-ETT • OLD SAWIET • OPECARRY (Stick In The Head) • PAH-VANTS • PANACARA • PANTS • SAM (Toady) • SANTICK • SHEGUMP • SKIPOKE • TOMWANTS • TACKWITCH • SEE-GO-ETT • TOW-ICH • NAR-A-COOTS • TO-A-BITCH • PE-DO • TO-NE-OO • OBER-ICH • SO-NEEP • WILLIAM • KID-IP • SAM • KUB-ER-UUP • CHARLEY • OLD JOHN • KAR AN KEG • PEAN UP • EBAH SAND • BNARIENT • KAR TEW ITS • PAMSOOKQUOGAND
The above names I have collected from history records as I came upon them. The spellings are as I found them. All are from the Ute Tribe. Names were spelled according to how they sound when spoken. For more First People names click here.
"American Indian" battles in the war of extermination of the Native Americans
* BATTLE OF ORISKANY (1777) * WYOMING VALLEY MASSACRE (1778) * CHERRY VALLEY MASSACRE (1778) * SULLIVAN EXPEDITION (1779) * BATTLE OF BLUE LICKS (1782) * NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR (1785–1795) * NICKAJACK EXPEDITION (1794) * SABINE EXPEDITION (1806) * WAR OF 1812 (WESTERN THEATRE), WHICH INCLUDED: * TECUMSEH'S WAR (1811-1813) * PEORIA WAR (1813) * CREEK WAR (1813–1814) * SEMINOLE WARS (1812, 1817–1818, 1835–1842, 1855–1858) * ARIKARA WAR (1823) * FEVER RIVER WAR (1827) * LE FÈVRE INDIAN WAR (1827) * BLACK HAWK WAR (1832) * PAWNEE INDIAN TERRITORY CAMPAIGN (1834) * CREEK WAR OF 1836, AKA SECOND CREEK WAR OR CREEK ALABAMA UPRISING (1835-1837) * MISSOURI-IOWA BORDER WAR (1836) * SOUTHWESTERN FRONTIER (SABINE) DISTURBANCES (NO FIGHTING) (1836–1837) * CHEROKEE UPRISING (1836-1838) * OSAGE INDIAN WAR (1837) * CAYUSE WAR (1848–1855) * NAVAJO WARS (1849–1861) O LONG WALK OF THE NAVAJO (1863–1868) * SOUTHWEST INDIAN WARS (1849-1863) * PITT RIVER EXPEDITION (1850) * MARIPOSA WAR (1850–1851) * YUMA EXPEDITION (1851–1852) * UTAH INDIAN WARS (1851-1853) * WALKER WAR (1853) * GRATTAN MASSACRE (1855) * YAKIMA WAR (1855) * SNAKE RIVER WAR (1855) * KLICKITAT WAR (1855) * PUGET SOUND WAR (1855–1856) * ROGUE RIVER WARS (1855–1856) * KLAMATH AND SALMON INDIAN WARS (1855) * TINTIC WAR (1856) * GILA EXPEDITION (1857) * MENDOCINO WAR (1858) * SPOKANE-COEUR D'ALENE-PALOOS WAR (1858) * PECOS EXPEDITION (1859) * ANTELOPE HILLS EXPEDITION (1859) * BEAR RIVER EXPEDITION (1859) * PAIUTE WAR (1860) * KIOWA-COMANCHE WAR (1860) * CHEYENNE CAMPAIGN (1861–1864) * DAKOTA WAR OF 1862 (1862) * BEAR RIVER MASSACRE (1863)* COLORADO WAR (1863–1865) *CIRCLEVILLE MASSACRE (1866) * KIDDER MASSACRE (1867) * SNAKE WAR (1864–1868) * UTAH'S BLACK HAWK WAR (1865–1872) * RED CLOUD'S WAR (1866–1868) * COMANCHE WARS (1867–1875) * BATTLE OF WASHITA RIVER (1868) * MARIAS MASSACRE (1870) * MODOC WAR (1872–1873) * RED RIVER WAR (1874) * APACHE WARS (1873, 1885–1886) * EASTERN NEVADA EXPEDITION (1875) * BLACK HILLS WAR (1876–1877) * NEZ PERCE WAR (1877) * BANNOCK WAR (1878) * CHEYENNE WAR (1878–1879) * SHEEPEATER INDIAN WAR (1879) * WHITE RIVER WAR (1879) * UTE WAR (1879-1880) * GHOST DANCE WAR (1890–1891) * WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE (1890) * BATTLE OF LEECH LAKE (1898) * NEW MEXICO NAVAJO WAR (1913) * COLORADO PAIUTE WAR (1915) * AIM TAKEOVERS (1969 - 75) * SENECA INDIAN NATION STANDOFF AND NEW YORK STATE THRUWAY BLOCKADE (1997)