Battle Creek &
Fort Utah Massacres 1849-50
Courtesy of Historian Phillip B Gottfredson | Author "Black Hawk's Mission of Peace"
The Battle Creek, and Fort Utah massacres occurred within a year 1849-50 between the Timpanogos Nation and Brigham Young's all Mormon militia. These events were the prelude to the Walker War and the root cause of the Black Hawk War that followed a decade later.
The BATTLE CREEK MASSACRE - Pleasant Grove, Utah 1849
The date was February 28, 1849. A company of forty-four Mormon militia, under the leadership of Captain John Scott, left Salt Lake City in pursuit of a so called “renegade band of Indians” who, it was alleged, had taken horses belonging to Brigham Young. This event became known as the “first battle with the Indians” that took place beside a creek that runs through the canyon, and that creek became known as Battle Creek.
Battle Creek Artist Carol Pettit Harding
In the twilight moments of a cold February morning , smoke from the lingering fires inside the teepees curled softly into the frosty air. All was silent as the people lay asleep, warm in the comfort of their shelters. Only the occasional breeze sent ice crystals from the trees into the air, drifting lightly upon the snow-covered ground below . The only sound was that of the nearby stream softly winding its way along.
Emerging from one of the teepees, a woman carrying some sticks in her arms to start the morning fire paused a moment.
Looking about, she had an eerie feeling that something was not right. The silence became quieter as the sound of the stream grew louder. The dogs in the camp became agitated and awakened those still sleeping. Two Timpanogos warriors by the names of Kone and Blue Shirt stepped from the teepee. Kone saw that they were surrounded by forty-four armed Mormon militia.
An argument ensued, and a shot was fired. It hit Kone in the back of his neck, the bullet blowing off the top of his head. Another man fell while the besieged, armed only with one gun and a bow and some arrows, dove into the nearby ravine to take cover in the thick brush.
Seventeen men, women, and children ran screaming. Blood spattered across the snow. People ran, jumping into the thick brush in shock as bullets whizzed at them from every direction. The shattered air was filled with smoke from the guns as two Timpanogos lay dead.
For a moment, there was silence. Then Captain John Scott gave the order to his men to throw rocks into the ravine. The voices of those being hit cried out in pain. More gunfire echoed off the steep cliffs above. When a nearby band led by Opecarry heard the guns, they took position on the top of a hill directly above the scene. Opecarry could see his brothers trapped in the ravine, and he began signaling to them where the best route to take to safety was. Blue Shirt, unarmed, made a break from the cover of the ravine on the east end and began to climb the hill where Opecarry stood, but he was peppered with bullets hitting him sixteen times, killing him.
It is said that the so-called battle continued for a couple of hours . But it is highly unlikely since those trapped in the ravine, standing in freezing water, had only the one gun. A brave girl about the age of 16 emerged from cover and pleaded with Captain John Scott to not harm her brother. Scott ordered her to bring her brother to him. Having no choice, she brought her brother from the thicket. He stood dignified in front of Scott and said, "Go away, what are you here for? Go away ... you kill my father, my brother ... for what? Go away, let us alone. What are you here for?"
According to witnesses, Dimick Huntington grabbed the boy by his ear and, putting a gun to his face, shouted, "We are here to open your ears, so you will hear. We said to you a long time ago, don't kill our cattle. You kill them all the time now ... you will hear good. How many guns Indian got down there?" pointing to the ravine.
The boy answered, "One." Dimmick told the boy to go back and get it. The young man answered, "You go get it if you want it." Again Dimmick grabbed the boy by the ear and raised his gun to his head and shouted, "You have no good ears to hear. Get me that gun, or I will open your ears and you will hear."
The young boy got the gun, and when he returned he threw it on the ground breaking the stock.
Nine women, a few children, and the young boy, numbering 12 in all were then marched down the canyon at gun-point leaving behind their loved ones, all lying dead in the snow.
"Joshua Terry, a pioneer of 1847, and a mountain man who married into an Indian tribe, once told the writer ( Howard R. Driggs) that this Indian boy became the warring leader Black Hawk. When peace came, after the Black Hawk War of the late 1860s, this Chief, Terry declared, told him that he was this same boy taken after the fight on Battle Creek. He could never understand why the white men had shot down his people. It put bitterness in his heart; and though he lived for some time with the white people, his mind was ever set on avenging the wrong. That is why he later made war against them." (Story of Old Battle Creek and Pleasant Grove, Utah, Howard R. Driggs, 1948)
The date was February 28, 1849. A company of forty-four Mormon militia, under the leadership of Captain John Scott, left Salt Lake City in pursuit of a so called “renegade band of Indians” who, it was alleged, had taken horses belonging to Brigham Young. According to reliable accounts, Brigham gave the order for Captain Scott and his men to find and punish the perpetrators. But before the troops reached the valley where the Timpanogos were camped, Captain Scott had received word from Brigham "three times" that the horses had been found and to return to Salt Lake.
Captain Scott ignored Brigham's order. It is recorded that Scott and his men met up on the Provo River with a Timpanogos Indian by the name of Little Chief whose son led Scott to an encampment of Indians who allegedly had been doing some stealing. The trail took the company of soldiers to the mouth of a canyon above Pleasant Grove. Scott and his men split into four groups and surrounded the camp . They opened fire on the unsuspecting people sleeping there.
It seems unlikely that Little Chief would lead Scott to his own people unless he was being threatened. It was also alleged Scott and his men found thirteen cow hides near the camp, which the attackers deemed proof these were the Indians who had taken their cattle. Scott's credibility is put into question because he defied orders from Brigham Young to return to Salt Lake.
The terrorized captives who survived the attack were taken thirty miles north to Salt Lake City. The young boy would later become known as Black Hawk. It is said he put up a good fight, but shook with fear when taken captive.
"When the firing had ceased it was perhaps 8 o'clock, the sun was high up, and Little Chief had come from his home (on the Provo) on horseback, since he first heard our guns. The morning was clear and calm as God ever made, and the volleys of our guns rolled down the mountain (to) Little Chief's ears ... (so) he mounted his best horse and dashed up the mountainsides for ten miles ... His horse, a noble animal with large extended nostrils, was as wet as the poor squaws who had laid in the creek. Little Chief was wet with tears and his horse wet with sweat. The old man howled, cried, moaned, hollowed, screamed, and smote his breast in the greatest agony of mind when he came to us. He blamed himself and cursed the whites, and said it would not be good medicine for two or three to come up there alone as they had done before." [Source: Hosea Stout Journal]
Historic records give little information why Black Hawk, along with the women and their children were taken captive at Battle Creek and transported to Salt Lake. Incredibly, the children were taken from their mothers and placed in the care of Mormon families . Why would they have not been returned to their people instead? Members of the Timpanogos Nation gave me an explanation saying, “Brigham often took our children and held them captive knowing that we would not attack fearing our children would be hurt.” It is easy to conclude the survivors were not allowed to mourn the death of their families or attend to their burial (assuming they were buried or were simply left behind for the animals to feed upon as was so often the case.)
Hosea Stout gave a partial list of the soldiers who took part in the massacre: Colonel John Scott, Commander Alexander Williams, Aide Sorenus Taylor, Frank Woodard, George Boyd, Hosea Stout, David Fulmer , John Brown, Oliver B. Huntington, William G. Pettey, John S. Fullmer, John Lowry, Dick Stoddard, Judson Stoddard, Shell Stoddard, Irwin Stoddard, Dimick B. Huntington (Interpreter), and Barney Ward (Interpreter). [Source: Wikipedia]
The FORT UTAH
- Provo, Utah 1850
A year after the Battle Creek Massacre, the Higbee brothers and Dimmick Huntington were made presidency of the soon-to-be Provo Branch of the LDS Church, and they led a party of thirty saints to the Provo River to erect Fort Utah. Apostle George A. Smith gave the command to "remove the Indian people from their land," and he said Indian people have "no rights to their land."
When they were a few miles north of the Provo River, they were stopped by An-kar-tewets, a warrior of the Timpanogos, who stood before the men telling them to go back where they came from, that they were not going to make any settlement on their land. Allegedly they argued for some time, until Dimmick pleaded with An-kar-tewets that they wanted to live in peace with the Timpanogos, and he made promises of gifts. According to the victors’ accounts, following a long discussion, An-kar-tewets made Dimmick raise his hand to swear to the sun that no harm would come to the Timpanogos, that they would never take away their lands or rights . As before, Dimmick and the others swore, signifying nothing.
Members of the Timpanogos Nation dispute this account saying it would be highly unlikely that a warrior such as An-kar-tewets would have made any concession to accommodate Dimmick and his party because of what had happened earlier. First of all, he would not have the authority to speak on behalf of the Timpanogos community nor make a decision that potentially put the entire tribe and its most precious resources at risk ."And we do not swear to the sun" they said. "It would be more in character of An-kar-tewets to have firmly told Dimmick and his party to go away. The Mormons simply bullied their way into our territory."
Dimmick and the rest of the party then immediately began building the fort, for they knew they were in danger. Little did Dimmick and the others know that the land they were building the fort on was a traditional and sacred meeting place for the Shoshone who came from hundreds of miles around during the spring and summer months. There were twenty-seven bands of Shoshoni who would gather in sacred ceremonies to honor the Creator. On the other hand, if Dimmick knew it was sacred land, they didn't care . They were not honoring their sworn oath made earlier.
At first, the occupants at the fort attempted to turn the place into a trading post between the Timpanogos and the whites. Trading buffalo hides to the Timpanogos could have been seen as a sacrilege to the Shoshoni. After all, why should they have to now pay for something they had hunted in freedom for centuries? And what kind of person would barter something as sacred as the buffalo to the Natives. In less than a year, one of the bloodiest battles in Utah history would unfold at Fort Utah.
THE MURDER OF OLD BISHOP
On a warm spring day, three men were riding along the Provo River on their horses when they came upon a "friendly Indian" who the whites called Old Bishop. The whites called him by this name because his mannerisms reminded them of a white man by the name of Bishop Whitney. The three men, Rufus Stoddard, Richard Ivie, and Gerome Zabrisky, began to heckle the man. They accused him of stealing the shirt he was wearing off a clothes line. Old Bishop denied having stolen the shirt from anyone, saying he had made a fair trade for it.
Ivie pulled his gun on Old Bishop and told him to take it off. The old Indian man stood his ground and refused. Ivie murdered the Indian in cold blood.
Concerned that what they had done would spark retribution from the Timpanogos, the men then gutted the old man. They then filled his body cavity with rocks and threw him in the Provo River. Quoting from History of Utah State, by James Goff, one of the colonists, "The men who killed the Indian ripped his bowels open and filled them with stones preparatory to sinking the body." Then making mockery of the murder, he writes, "The Indians assert that, annually, on the anniversary of his death the Old Bishop appears on the bank of the river and slowly takes the rocks one by one out of his bowels and throws them into the river, then disappears. Some (white) fishermen have watched in hopes of having an interview with the Bishop's ghost. "
Satisfied, the men returned to the fort and boasted of having taken Old Bishop's life. Thinking they had committed the perfect murder, they relaxed and fell back into their routines. So much for the promises—empty words in fact— made by Dimmick Huntington and the Higbee brothers to An-kar-tewets.
Demands were made by the Timpanogos band that was camped near Fort Utah that the whites at the fort turn over the one guilty of killing Old Bishop, but their demands fell on deaf ears. The Timpanogos demanded compensation for the death of Old Bishop in cattle and horses, and again their demands where ignored.
Meanwhile, measles had begun to spread epidemically among the Timpanogos, and the Mormon saints had succeeded in driving most of the Timpanogos from the valley into the nearby mountains. On a cold winter day, Chief Pareyarts, better known as Old Elk, also known as Big Elk, came to the fort asking for medicine for his people who were sick from the disease. A soldier took the chief by the nap of his neck and threw him out of the fort. Pareyarts was also of the same bloodline as Walkara.
Now that Fort Utah had been established on land that was essential to the Timpanogos, as it provided ample food for them and their horses, about 120 settlers were living in and around the fort. Of course, they brought with them horses and cattle, and in a short time the Timpanogos were competing with the Mormon saints for food for man and horse alike.
It wasn't long before the people at the fort found their cattle and horses shot full of arrows. The Timpanogos' only logical answer to their plight was to reduce the numbers of cattle and horses overgrazing their land, and to drive out the settlers. Large numbers of cattle began to disappear. For several months, tensions grew between the people at Fort Utah and the Timpanogos . A dispatch was sent to Salt Lake to Brigham Young requesting military support. Brigham made conciliatory efforts to calm the people at the fort. He said, “It’s our duty to feed these poor ignorant Indians.” Brigham gave the Natives the choice to either surrender to the Mormons and eat, or continue to resist and be killed or starve.
The saints recklessly fished the Provo River that ran near the fort. It was a major food source for the Timpanogos, but the white man fished with gill nets . It is said they took over 6,000 fish in just one day, none of which was shared with the starving Timpanogos.
The young boy taken captive at Battle Creek later came to the fort oddly dressed in a military shirt. He asked the militia if there was anything he could do to help them in exchange for shelter for himself and several of his kin who accompanied him. He and the others were given scanty shelter underneath the fort’s cannon platform in the bitter cold.
BEHEADINGS OF CORPSUS AT FORT UTAH FEBRUARY 29, 1850
In the winter of 1850, confrontations had occurred between the settlers at Fort Utah and the Timpanogos. A government officer by the name of Captain Howard Stansbury convinced Brigham that all conciliatory efforts had failed and the only recourse was to take action against the Natives. In contradiction to his "feed them not fight them" policy, Brigham wholeheartedly agreed with Stansbury and supplied his vigilante army with arms, ammunition, tents, and camp equipage for the soldiers.
It followed that on January 31, 1850, Lieutenant General Daniel H. Wells of the all Mormon Nauvoo Legion sent orders to Captain George D. Grant to "exterminate the Timpanogos," known as "Special Order No. 2". Isaac Higbee was the bishop of Fort Utah and he met with the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles at the Fort when they agreed that the only way to keep Fort Utah would be to exterminate the Timpanogos. Source: Utah State Archives, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah Territorial Militia Correspondence, 1849-1863, ST-27, Microfilm reel 1, Document No. 5. Eugene E. Campbell. Establishing Zion
“I say go [and] kill them…" said Brigham Young, "Tell Dimmick Huntington to go and kill them—also Barney Ward—let the women and children live if they behave themselves… We have no peace until the men [are] killed off—never treat the Indian as your equal.” Source: BYC, Microfilm reel 80, box 47, folder 6. Farmer, Jared (2008). On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674027671
Under the leadership of Colonel George D. Grant, fifty troops were sent to Fort Utah in the late winter of 1850. Captain Grant’s cavalry left Salt Lake. They traveled all night through deep snow and the bitter cold so that they could take the Timpanogos, who were camped along the river near the fort, by surprise.
There were about seventy or more Timpanogos warriors along with women and children in the camp. While under the cover of darkness and in the twilight of that bitter cold morning, Grant and his men surrounded the camp and opened fire on the sleeping Timpanogos. Field cannons boomed as they fired chain-shot at the unsuspecting camp, ripping open the teepees, sending women and little children running in all directions screaming in terror as the surrounding troops shot them down one by one. It is said that the chain shot ripped off the limbs of its victims leaving them to die an agonizing death.
The air filled with smoke from the guns as Timpanogos warriors, led by Chief Old Elk and Opecarry, put up a good fight. The battle lasted for two days. Two young Timpanogos children named Pernetta and Pick were among the survivors. Pernetta was the daughter of Arapeen, Chief Walkara's brother.
During this time, General Wells was directed by Brigham Young to give the young boy taken captive at Battle Creek the name Black Hawk. The general told Black Hawk that he must lead his people and do all that he was told to do. Then they would be set free and their horses would be returned to them.
Two days after the battle, General H. Wells who had arrived from Salt Lake, ordered young Black Hawk to lead a serial killer by the name of Bill Hickman and his men up Rock Canyon to pursue the survivors. In freezing temperatures and deep snow, Black Hawk, having no choice in the matter, did as he was ordered and led the men up Rock Canyon. Lookouts scaled the steep walls of the canyon as Wells and his men slowly made their way up the rugged canyon . Black Hawk reluctantly followed behind.
When they reached the camp of the survivors, terrified women and children were scattering about. Black Hawk was ordered to look in side the teepees. There Black Hawk saw his beloved relative Para-yah (Old Elk) frozen to death, and many others who had died of their wounds lay frozen stiff in the cold.
The Mormon vigilantes greedily helped themselves taking the belongings from the dead , while Bill Hickman, with knife in hand, hacked Old Elk's head off his frozen body. He said Jim Bridger had offered him a hundred dollars for the head. Old Elk's wife refused to be taken captive . She broke free and ran for her life. She scaled the steep cliffs, but while doing so, she either jumped or slipped and fell to her death. Hence the Mormon s disrespectfully dubbed the canyon Squaw Peak which is located above the Provo LDS Temple . It is a name that endures to this day. Hickman and his men returned to Fort Utah where Hickman showed off his trophy, the head of Old Elk.
Of the seventy or so warriors, only about thirteen had escaped while only one life was lost among the Mormons. One of the warriors who managed to survive was taken captive. This was An-kar-tewets, the same one to which the Church leaders Dimmick and the Higbee brothers had earlier sworn an oath that no harm would come to the Natives, that their land and rights would not be taken away, and that they would be given many gifts.
One more loathsome act remained to unfold which would haunt the Mormons for many decades to follow, even to the present day. Hickman hung the head of Old Elk from the eves of his cabin. A witness at Fort Utah told reporters, "...it was hung pendant by its long hair from the willows of the roof of one of the houses. I well remember how horrible was the sight." - Robert Carter, Fort Utah.
Dr. James Blake, a surgeon among the Stansbury company, was greatly influenced by Hickman's trophy of Old Elk's head. Dr. Blake then ordered troops Abner Blackburn and James Orr to go out and behead each of the frozen corpses lying about in the snow, following the two-day battle that resulted in the deaths of nearly seventy Indian people. Dr. Blake told the men he "wanted to have the heads shipped to Washington to a medical institution."
The men hacked the heads from as many as fifty frozen corpses . They piled them in open boxes, along with a dozen or so Mallard ducks that Blake had shot while his men performed their chore. The heads and ducks were taken to the fort and placed in view of Black Hawk, who was barely in his twenties, and his traumatized kin. Innocent of any wrongdoing, the captives were thus tortured as they were forced to view the grizzly remains placed before them for a period of two long and excruciating weeks. Abner, keeping the agreement, delivered the rotting heads and ducks to Blake in Salt Lake. Dr. Blake settled up, and invited Abner to dinner. Abner Blackburn declined, saying he had lost his appetite.
April of 1850, the fort was moved. The fort, according to historian Robert Carter, origanlly stood near the corner of 1200 North and 500 West in Provo. It was then moved to what is now Sowiette Park at 400 North and 500 West.
Timpanogos Chief Wakara was in leadership at this time These three terrifying events sent the Timpanogos scattering in all directions and the stage was set for the Walker War that followed in 1853, the Tintic War in 1856, the Bear River Massacre in 1863, and eventually culminating into all out battle with the Mormons that peaked in 1865 and continued on into 1873 known today as The Utah Black Hawk War.