The UTAH BLACK HAWK WAR; A Detailed Synopsis

In Utah, the Black Hawk War was the result of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons) intruding upon the land of the Timpanogos Nation in the year 1847.

The following essay is a detailed synopsis of the Utah Black Hawk War from the perspective of the Timpanogos Nation. We are beginning with a short biography of the Timpanogos, followed by the story of the Black Hawk War of Utah.

 

Burial site of Timpanogos Chief Antonga  Black Hawk and  Mary Meyer descendent of Timpanogos Chief Arapeen

Black Hawk Memorial Spring Lake, Utah

Mary Murdock Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation
Descendent of Timpanogos Chief Arapeen

 

The Timpanogos Nation

The first inhabitants of the Wasatch (Utah)
 
Courtesy of historian Phillip B Gottfredson | Author, "Black Hawk's Mission of Peace"

The Timpanogos Tribe was first discovered in Utah Territory by Spanish explorers Juan Rivera in 1765 and later on by Dominguez and Escalante in 1776. They describe having come in contact with "the bearded ones" Eutahs, who spoke the language of the Snake-Shoshone and called themselves "Timpanogostzis," who lived by a lake the Timpanogostzis named Timpanogos. Dominguez and Escalante named the area "El Valle de Nuestra Señora de la Merced de los Timpanogos" (translation: The valley of our lady of mercy of the Timpanogos), a description fitting for the serene beauty of a lush green valley surrounded by majestic mountains, dominated by a twelve-thousand-foot mountain named Mount Timpanogos that Dominguez and Escalante called "La Sierra Blanca de los Timpanogos" (translation: The white mountain of the Timpanogos). The lake is known today as Utah Lake. Then, Utah and the Great Salt lakes were connected by a river. Government maps that predate Mormon settlement support these facts. The Lagunas, fish eaters, Yutah, Eutah, and the bearded ones; the Timpangotzis, Timpanogos, they are called by all these names.

"Turunianchi the Great" was the leader of the Timpanogostzis, and Cuitza-pun-inchi, Pan-chu-cun-quibiran, and Picu-chi were his brothers. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch. Moonch was the father of Chiefs Sanpitch, Yah-Keera (Walker), Arapeen (father of Jake Arapeen), Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, Kanosh, and Grospeen, who were known as the "Royal Bloodline." Six of the eight brothers were the uncles of Antonga Black Hawk, the son of Sanpitch.

The Timpanogos are indigenous to the Wasatch of Utah. Chief Executive Phillip B Gottfredson's book, My Journey To Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, is about the Utah Black Hawk War and the Timpanogos Tribe of the Wasatch. Mary Murdock Meyer of the Snake-Shoshone Timpanogos Nation, who is a direct descendent Chief Arapeen, generously provided definitive proof that the Timpanogos are the living descendants of the 'Royal Bloodline' of Chiefs Sanpitch, Wakara, Arapeen, Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, Grospeen and Antongua 'Black Hawk', and other acclaimed leaders in the Utah Black Hawk War such as Kanosh and Tintic. Their lineage is documented by birth and marriage records, death certificates, Indian Agency records, treaties, and that the Timpanogos have filed some thirteen thousand pages of historical records with the United States Department of the Interior going back to 1765.

The Timpanogos are not Ute and live on the Uinta Valley Reservation in Utah, but they are distinctly different Tribes in origin, ancestral bloodlines, language, and customs. The Utes are not Shoshone and are not related to the Timpanogos, a centuries-old band of the Shoshone. The Timpanogos were never in Colorado and were never enrolled members of the Ute Tribe. They ruled the entire Wasatch at the time when Mormon settlers and colonists arrived in Utah. For a detailed account of the origins of both tribes, read The Utah Timpanogos & Colorado Ute Oxymoron.

Now that we have a better understanding of who the Timpanogos are, let's look at the Black Hawk War from their perspective.

Phillip B Gottfredson and members of the Timpanogos Nation

Spear point Timpanogos Tribe Utah

Spear Point gifted to Phillip Gottfredson was napped by Stewart Murdock elder member of the Timpanogos Nation

The Utah Black Hawk War

Just 70 years following the Dominguez and Escalante expedition, trouble began for the Royal Bloods of the Timpanogos. On July 24, 1847, LDS leader Brigham Young and a party of 143 Mormons emerged from the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon onto a hill overlooking the northern end of Timpanogos Lake (now Salt Lake valley). A thousand-mile journey from Nauvoo, Illinois, took a hundred and eleven days by horseback and covered wagons. Seeing the valley, Brigham said, "It's enough. This is the right place. Drive on."

In the following years, Mormons would continue to pour in on the land of the Timpanogos at the rate of three thousand a month. Their arrival soon created confusion and upset the sacred balance of nature by cutting down trees, diverting streams, killing animals, and creating chaos among all living things. Thus setting the stage for a significant conflict with the Timpanogos Nation, whose only want was to be left alone. They believed their sacred duty was to protect the natural order being critical to the survival of all life.

Mormon's War with the Timpanogos Nation was not a single incident. Researching the Black Hawk War for some twenty years, I was first to publish over a hundred and fifty bloody confrontations between the Timpanogos Nation and the Mormons during the years of 1849 - 1872. And forty-one of those confrontations occurred before the year 1865. The date my great-grandfather Peter said the War began, which is one of the many arguments Native people have against Utah's one-sided history. The War may have started for the Mormons in 1865, according to their historians. However, the Timpanogos had not forgotten the previous sixteen years when Mormon colonists brutally massacred their ancestors at Battle Creek, Fort Utah, and Bear River. Or when their beloved Leader Wakara, or "Chief Walker" as the Mormons call him, was murdered in 1855.

Historians for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints say the years leading up to the War were "complex circumstances." Whereas a knowing member of the Timpanogos Tribe put it succinctly when I asked if causes of the War were complex, "What choice were we given? To walk knee-deep in the blood of our people, or give up our sacred land and culture and accept white man's ways... it was a matter of what's right... our honor... survival... why is that so complicated to understand?"

It's easy to become confused when there are many different Chiefs in these accounts. First, we need to understand the word 'Chief" is Whiteman's term. In the Native way, there were no 'Chiefs,' but there were many leaders, and depending on the situation, a person was chosen by the community to lead them accordingly. So, several leaders of the various Bands of the Timpanogos, but I will use the term 'Chief' since it is established that way. During and following the Black Hawk War, the Timpanogos Nation had three Principal Chiefs who were Wakara, Arapeen, and Tabby during the years 1847 and 1898, and other leaders such as Black Hawk were subordinate to the Principal Chief, Black Hawk was a War Chief. I will use the terms 'Principal Chief' when referring to the Nation's leader and 'War Chief" for those who lead warriors in battle.

Wakara Warns Brigham Young

Continuing our story, the Timpanogos Principal Chief Wakara warned Brigham Young upon arrival, that he and his people were not welcome to settle on the land of his ancestors. Brigham assured Wakara they were only passing through to California, that they needed to spend the winter to rest and continue their journey in the spring. The following is a brief synopsis of the events as they unfolded.

Wakara having compassion for the Mormon's, helped Brigham and his followers survive the first winter of '47 with food and provisions. Wakara's brothers Tabby, Sanpitch, Sowette, Arapeen, Grospeen, Ammon, Kanosh, and others made every effort to avoid bloodshed.

When spring came in 1848, Brigham Young had no intention of leaving as he had promised Wakara, and commenced building cabins, barns and fencing off the land. Wakara's patience was wearing thin and again warned Young to leave, and to not build any fort (Fort Utah) on their land near Timpanogos Lake. But by now, hundreds more Mormons had arrived.

Battle Creek and Fort Utah

As tensions continued to escalate, on February 28, of 1849 Brigham Young falsely accuses a small group of 'Indians' of stealing his horses which led to the senseless killing of a peaceful group of Timpanogos at Pleasant Grove armed with only a rifle and never fired one shot. This is known as the Battle Creek Massacre. A year later February 9, 1850 a second massacre occurs at Fort Utah when seventy Timpanogos were killed, and the severed heads of fifty Tribal leaders and members are hung by their long hair from eves of buildings and stacked in boxes. That alone was enough to start a war. Wakara was outraged, heartbroken, his people were in danger and fearful of these strange intruders who had little or no regard for his people or the natural order, while his elder brother Sowette argued against violence that would bring more harm. And though Sowette had no power over Wakara, he was the elder, and it is the Native way to respect the elders for their wisdom and council.

Just prior to the massacre at Fort Utah, Mormon apostle George A. Smith, a cousin to Church founder Joseph Smith declared that the indigenous peoples of Utah territory "have no right to their land." And while the LDS Church had no legal basis what-so-ever to remove indigenous peoples from their aboriginal land, and in fact violated the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848. Smith orders the all-Mormon legislature to "extinguish all titles" and get them out of the way and onto reservations because they were judged as being "heathens" and "savages" and so the stage was set for the extermination of the Timpanogos Nation that would follow. George A. Smith was 33 years of age when he initiates the genocide of the Timpanogos Nation.

Extermination Order

It followed that on January 31, 1850, Lieutenant General Daniel H. Wells of the all Mormon Nauvoo Legion sent orders to Captain George D. Grant to "exterminate the Timpanogos," known as "Special Order No. 2". Isaac Higbee was the bishop of Fort Utah and he met with the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles at the Fort when they agreed that the only way to keep Fort Utah would be to exterminate the Timpanogos. Source: Utah State Archives, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah Territorial Militia Correspondence, 1849-1863, ST-27, Microfilm reel 1, Document No. 5. Eugene E. Campbell. Establishing Zion

“I say go [and] kill them…" said Brigham Young, "Tell Dimmick Huntington to go and kill them—also Barney Ward—let the women and children live if they behave themselves… We have no peace until the men [are] killed off—never treat the Indian as your equal.” Source: BYC, Microfilm reel 80, box 47, folder 6. Farmer, Jared (2008). On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674027671

Christian Inculturation | Doctrine of Discovery

The Christian mind-set of superiority began long before Columbus arrived in the Americas, Christian Monarchs during the 15th century had decreed that anyone who did not believe in the God of the Bible, or that Jesus Christ was the true Messiah, was deemed "heathens," "infidels" and "savages". Christians believed that they were entitled to commit all manner of depredations upon them. Indeed America was founded upon Christian principals; by those who drew their power from Old Testament-inspired Doctrine of Discovery, saying: "This is the land promised by the Eternal Father to the Faithful, since we are commanded by God in the Holy Scriptures to take it from them, being idolaters, by reason of their idolatry and sin, to put them all to the knife, leaving no living thing save maidens and children, their cities robbed and sacked, their walls and houses leveled to the earth." - Steven T. Newcomb Indigenous Law Institute and author of "Pagans in the Promised Land."

According to LDS church doctrine (Book of Mormon 2 Nephi 5:21-23) the nature of their dark skin was a curse, the cause was the Lord, the reason was because the Lamanites (Native Americans) "had hardened their hearts against him, (God)" and the punishment was to make them "loathsome" unto God's people who had white skins.

In the year 1852, the all Mormon legislature sanctions slavery of not only Blacks, but Indians, stating that a white man need only be in possession of an Indian for that Indian to be enslaved, and this included children.

 

Carvalho, Solomon. Portrait of Wakara. 01.1578. 1854. Tulsa: Gilcrease MuseumTimpanogos Principal Chief Wakara told interpreter M. S. Martenas In 1853 "He (Wakara) said that he had always been opposed to the whites set[t]ling on Indian lands, particularly that portion which he claims; and on which band resides and on which they have resided since his childhood—that the Mormons when they first commenced the settlement of Salt Lake Valley, was friendly, and promised them many comforts, and lasting friendship—that they continued friendly for a short time, until they became strong in numbers, then their conduct and treatment towards the Indians changed—they were not only treated unkindly, but many were much abused and this course has been pursued up to the present—sometimes they have been treated with much severity—they have been driven by this population from place to place—settlements have been made on all their hunting grounds in the valleys, and the graves of their fathers have been torn up by the whites." - STATEMENT, M. S. MARTENAS, INTERPRETER Great Salt Lake City, July 6 1853 Brigham Young Papers, MS 1234, Box 58, Folder 14 LDS Archives - Will Bagley Transcription

On July 18th, 1853 Wakara and his brother Arapeen, at the height of their frustration had seen enough and so led a group of their warriors in an attack on Fort Payson. Fear and anger turned into hate, when a guard at the fort was shot and killed by the name of Alexander Keele. This was one of several attacks that occurred simultaneously throughout the territory. For Wakara and Arapeen had orchestrated all-out war on the invaders and were determined to drive them off their land.

Putting this into perspective, the Mormon population at this time was approximately fifty thousand, whereas the Native population may have been about the same.

Yenewood "Jake" Arrpeen

The Walker War, as it is called, continued for the next two years when Wakara was poisoned to death by the very people he had helped. He was then laid to rest at Meadow, Utah in 1855.

Timpanogos Chief Arapeen artist W.W. MajorFollowing Chief Wakara's death, Wakara's leadership was passed to his brother Arapeen. Arapeen was now the Principal Chief of the Timpanogos Nation and faced many ongoing encounters with Mormons and getting on in years by this time, his son Yenewood, known to the Mormons as "Jake," would continue to lead his fellow warriors as War Chief into battle against the invaders.

The Mountain Meadows Massacre in 1857 cannot be ignored and having no impact on the Native American population in Utah. Mormons masquerading as Indians savagely slaughter a hundred and twenty whites and blamed the bloody affair on the Paiute.

In view of what was happening to Utah's Native population, many Timpanogos took evasive action and scattered in every direction. Some went to Idaho and Wyoming. Those who remained in Utah, most were terrified. Under pressure from Mormon leaders, many Timpanogos joined the church and were baptized.

Following the murder of Wakara, Chief Tintic was murdered in 1856, Site of the Bear River Massacre in 1863. Photographer Tracey Dunkley.then came the massacre at Bear River that occurred January 29, 1863. Four hundred thirty-one Shoshone were slain by the U.S. Army under the command of Colonel Patrick Edward Connor—among them, old men, ninety women, and children. After the slaughter ended, soldiers went through the Indian village raping women and using axes to bash in the heads of women and children who were already dying of wounds. Chief Bear Hunter and sub-Chief Lehi both were killed. Bear Hunter was the Chief of the Lemhi Shoshoni which was the band of Sacagawea. The troops burned seventy five Indian lodges, took possession of a thousand bushels of wheat and flour, and one hundred and fifty Shoshone horses. While the troops cared for their wounded and took their dead back to Camp Douglas in Salt Lake City for burial, hundreds of Indians' bodies were left on the field for the wolves and crows for nearly two years. Brigham Young obliged the federal government’s request by supplying Connor with cavalry troops from the Utah Militia. The Lemhi are also known as Snake Shoshone as are the Timpanogos.

Chief Tabby

Black Hawk War; Timpanogos Chief TabbyIn 1865, the Timpanogos' Principal Chief Arapeen died from the smallpox epidemic that had spread among the Tribe. The Nation's leadership was then passed to his younger brother Tabby (Tabiona) who remained in leadership as Principal Chief until his death circa 1898. Meanwhile, the Mormons botched an attempt for peace with the Timpanogos at Manti in 1865, when an argument ensued between a drunken John Lowry and Jake Arapeen. Lowry yanked Jake from his horse beating him severely. Jake dishonored before his warriors resigned his leadership as War Chief to Antonga Black Hawk.

Timpanogos War Chief Black Hawk didn't start the war, he only wanted to restore peace. He didn't want to see his people die, yet people typically lay all the blame on him and Utah's indigenous peoples.

Chief Antonga Black Hawk

Timpanogos Chief Black Hawk forensic reconstruction by artist CArol Pettit HardingBlack Hawk at the young age of twenty had been extremely traumatized being present at both massacres of his kin at Battle Creek and Fort Utah as a prisoner of war. Add to his agony the murder of his father Sanpitch, his uncle Wakara, the death of Arapean, and a series of bloody confrontations leading up to the Bear River Massacre where some four hundred of Black Hawk's Shoshoni blood relations are brutally slaughtered, Howard R. Driggs commented, "He could never understand why the white men had shot down his people. It put bitterness in his heart; and though he lived for some time with the white people, his mind was ever set on avenging the wrong."

Now War Chief, Black Hawk asks for solidarity and support from surrounding Native Nations such as the Colorado Utes, Navajo, Apache, and Comanche to name some, all then agreed it was in their best interest to assist in pushing back on Mormon invaders under the leadership of Black Hawk. This is the only time members of the Colorado Utes were involved in the Black Hawk War as volunteer warriors subordinate to the War Chief Black Hawk.

Under the leadership of the Nation's Principal Chief Tabby in 1865, Black Hawk at the age of thirty-five for fourteen months led a masterful attack against the Mormons and nearly drove them out of Utah. Within a year, Black Hawk was mortally wounded in battle while attempting to rescue a fallen warrior Shi-Nav-Egin (son of the sun), whites called him Whitehorse, as he always rode a white horse. Mormons said that Whitehorse had a "superstitious power over his warriors" suggesting he was perhaps possessed. In truth, Shi-Nav-Egin had survived a near-death experience, and having lived, his people believed he had a great mission yet to accomplish. And being a deeply spiritual person, Shi-Nav-Egin was highly respected within the Tribe. Eventually, and as a consequence of his heroic deed, Black Hawk would die from his wound. Complications from the wound to his stomach didn't heal properly and caused him much suffering, he passed over Sept. 26, 1870 and was buried at Spring Lake the place of his birth.

Then in the year 1919 Black Hawk's grave was robbed by members of the Mormon Church. His mortal remains was first put on public display in the window of a hardware store in Spanish Fork for public amusement. Later his corpse was taken to Temple Square in downtown Salt Lake City and again put on public display for some 60 years. Seventy-seven years after Black Hawk's grave was robbed, Black Hawk was again reburied in the year 1996. It took an act of Congress, the help of National Forest Service archeologist Charmain Thompson, and the humanitarian efforts of a boy scout Shane Armstrong to find and rebury the remains of Black Hawk at Spring Lake.

Clearly Brigham Young started the war, and it was Black Hawk and his uncle Tabby who ended the war through peaceful means as you shall see. Account after account shows that Black Hawk and his entire family of renowned leaders were against bloodshed from the beginning. Black Hawk convinced his Uncle it would be better to end the war peacefully. One only needs to look at our Timeline to see that 1865 was the year the war was at its highest point following sixteen years of Mormon's ruthless cruelty resulting in thousands of Indian deaths and loss of land that continued seven years after 1865.

Notorious Mormon leader Brigham Young spent a staggering 1.5 million dollars in Church funds (equivalent to $30 million today) to "get rid of the Indians" and bills Congress for reimbursement. No wonder Brigham also said, "It's cheaper to feed them than to fight them." A mere drop in the bucket though, when compared to the untold collateral losses suffered by the Native peoples of Utah. And who is there to reimburse them?

Professor Dr. Daniel McCool University of Utah summed it up succinctly: "We took from them almost all their land—the reservations are just a tiny remnant of traditional tribal homelands. We tried to take from them their hunting rights, their fishing rights, the timber on their land. We tried to take from them their water rights. We tried to take from them their culture, their religion, their identity, and perhaps most importantly, we tried to take from them their freedom. And what is so amazing about this whole story is that we failed. We failed after hundreds of years of trying to take everything from American Indians. We failed to do that. They're still here and there's survival; that great saga of survival is one of the great stories of all mankind."

"In those early days, it was at times imperative that harsh measures should be used. We had to do these things, or be run over by them," wrote John Lowry a Black Hawk War veteran. "It was a question of supremacy between the white man and the Indian."

Brigham Young was quoted by the Denver Rocky Mountain Newspaper as saying, "You can get rid of more Indians with a sack of flour, than a keg of powder." Just how many of some seventy thousand Indians did he get rid of?

“Illa shared the story of her family getting a sack of Flour from the Mormons, when Old James Reed saw the flour he dumped some of it on the table and brushed his glove covered hand across it exposing the broken glass fragments hidden inside. She always warned against taking food from Mormons because of this,” Said Mary Meyer.

The consequence of the war resulted in an astonishing 90% decrease in Utah's Native population that was noted by Brigham Young and recorded in Indian agency reports, and government census records. Deaths from violence, starvation, and disease over a twenty three year period were in the thousands. "I do not suppose there is one in ten, perhaps not one in a hundred, now alive of those who were here when we came. Did we kill them? No, we fed them." ~ Brigham Young.

Black Hawk deserves praise and credit for his two-year "mission of peace." And for being true to his ancestor's teachings. In the Indian way, being a true warrior wasn't about killing the enemy, or being physically superior. A fighter will kill or be killed. As a leader, Black Hawk's first responsibility was spiritual. A warrior will always try to preserve life. That's why Black Hawk always offered up prayers before going into battle, with ceremony and dance. And as a survivor, he made offerings to the enemy's family and was cleansed in holy ceremony. As a warrior, he preferred 'taking coup' to taking a life. Black Hawk put family and tribe above all else. It was not about him, he followed his people's codes and traditions, and helped his people who were starving, often going without himself. It was his nature to be humble, kind, gentle, honest, fair and patient in all affairs. Antongua was a teacher, as were his ancestors before him, he forged the way for others to follow.

Antonga Black Hawk spent his last days on earth campaigning for peace. Deathly ill from a gunshot wound that never healed, he rode by horseback a hundred and eighty miles from Cedar City to Payson visiting every Mormon village along the way. Black Hawk apologized for the pain and suffering he had caused and pleaded for an end to the bloodshed. It is easy to assume that Black Hawk would be filled with anger and hate and wanted revenge. And to some extent that may be true, certainly he was feeling tremendous emotional pain as well. But he was taught to love unconditionally, and to forgive unconditionally. These are the core beliefs of the Timpanogos, and so it was that as a warrior he chose to honor the sacred teachings of his ancestors. And that's what gets left out of Utah's history. So, if you must judge the Timpanogos, do so by their own standards. (See: Black Hawk's Biography)

The Myths of The Utah Black Hawk War

Many fallacious stories are told and retold, such as selling children into slavery, or children being buried alive with Timpanogos Chief Wakara when there is no credible evidence to support such an atrocious claim when living descendants of Wakara vigorously dispute these concocted stories. Saying it is a lie and contradicts the traditional core values of the Timpanogos Nation. "Like our ancestor Wakara, we love our children and would never do such a thing." said the Timpanogos in an interview. Its white man who writes these stories, never asking the Native People their opinion. Which brings me to make this point...

While I struggled to make sense of the Mormons' convoluted view of history, and many books I read over and over again numerous times. I learned that the LDS Church has a monopoly on Utah's history. I would dare say damn-near all of it has been written by Mormon authors. Owing to their own ignorance, or failure to study Native culture in depth, virtually every account about Utah's indigenous peoples are biased and based on assumptions.

Historian Phillip B Gottfredson in photo pointing at the location where the Diamond Creek BAttle of Spanish Fork Canyon, Utah took place in 1866.
Site of the Little Diamond Battle

"Repeat a lie often enough, and it becomes the truth." This is how propagandist creates the illusion of truth. These histories get passed from generation to generation repeating the same mistakes and/or lies that earlier authors and historians have written, whether intentional or unintentional, still, they never ask the Native people for their side of the story. The time has come when Native Americans need to tell their stories and demand they are told accurately.

Forgotten are the thousands of Native American men, women, and innocent children who bled to death on the battlefields of Bear River, Pleasant Grove, Provo, Manti, or on the shores of Utah Lake. Or those who starved to death for want of food, run off their hunting grounds. Or those who died from measles and smallpox, or poisoned to death their sources of water contaminated with cyanide and strychnine. Or those brutally murdered. 'Old Bishop', a beloved old Indian, was eviscerated, his stomach cavity filled with rocks and thrown in the river, accused of stealing a shirt off a clothesline.

After the war, we see ongoing cultural genocide as relentless attempts made to assimilate Native Americans into the white man's culture and take away their reservations. The Dawes Allotment Act, the Reorganization Act, the Termination Act, the Self Determination Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Then the boarding house schools, or the LDS Church Indian placement program are few of many examples of cultural genocide as native children are taken away, torn from the arms their families and relatives, their languages and traditions stripped away, to be assimilated, but not integrated, into the white man's world. Inspired by Manifest Destiny and Capt. Richard H. Pratt's racist slogan "Save the man, kill the Indian." If those children were among the fortunate, who survived after years and years of unimaginable brutality in all its many forms, living in complete isolation from their moms and dads, cousins, uncles, and grandparents, they returned home where they were now strangers among their own people. One elderly Navajo woman showed me the scars in her mouth, she said happened when they washed her tender mouth out with lye soap for speaking her Native language.

We have much to learn from the Native Americans who have occupied Utah's landscape since time and memorial if only we would listen. Some Native American concepts and values differ greatly from mainstream culture. The landscapes of Utah are as sacred today as when the Great Spirit created them. Burial sites, massacre sites, battlefields such as Battle Creek, Bear River, or Circleville where the cries of the wounded and dying can still be heard following the horrors that took place there. And for native peoples of Utah the Timpanogos, Paiute, and Goshute, respect for the dead is as important as respect for the elderly and reverence for life.

As previously stated, since time and memorial Honesty, Love, Courage, Truth, Wisdom, Humility, and Respect have consistently been the core beliefs of all Native American Tribes I have had the honor to speak with. For Utah's Timpanogos there is no exception, they were deeply connected to the land of their ancestors. They were deeply connected and stood in awe of the beauty that surrounded them, the majestic Wasatch mountains, Utah Lake, Timpanogos Mountain, and Provo River. They were deeply connected to the plants in all their endless forms for food or medicinal uses. They were deeply connected to maintaining a harmonious relationship among themselves and their environment, the elk, deer, buffalo, and all living things. Even the rocks were sacred to them. They understood and respected these things as sacred gifts from their Creator. For the Timpanogos peoples, the war was never about riches or possessions, the land is their home, their mother, nourishing all her children, it is sacred, and being sacred belonged to everyone. They fought to protect the sacred, and their honor as a peaceful people.

Native peoples teach us, "Before our white brothers arrived to make us civilized men, we didn't have any kind of prison. Because of this, we had no delinquents. We had no locks nor keys and therefore among us there were no thieves. When someone was so poor that he couldn't afford a horse, a tent or a blanket, he would, in that case, receive it all as a gift. We were too uncivilized to give great importance to private property. We didn't know any kind of money and consequently, the value of a human being was not determined by his wealth. We had no written laws laid down, no lawyers, no politicians, therefore we were not able to cheat and swindle one another. We were really in bad shape before the white men arrived and I don't know how to explain how we were able to manage without these fundamental things that (so they tell us) are so necessary for a civilized society." - Lame Deer

Conclusion

Perhaps the writers of Utah's sanitized history their intentions were never meant for Native Americans of Utah to read, who know better their own history. Perhaps writers are too much in the habit of entertaining readers with flowery rhetoric and folklore, by sugar-coating Indian slavery, or understate the savage and barbarian behavior of Bill Hickman or Dr. James Blake cutting off the heads of Indian corpses at Fort Utah, then selling them to make a few extra bucks. Or making heroes of those who cut the throats of 26 innocent Paiutes at Circleville. Or William E. Croft looting Chief Black Hawk's grave and placing his remains on public display in the window of a hardware store my father remembered so well, and later at Temple Square for decades as amusement. The disturbing image of seeing Black Hawk's remains on public display at the age of twelve is still vivid in my mind. Or glorifying unprincipled leaders like John Scott, or James A. Allred, or Colonel George D. Grant. Or exonerating questionable heroics of soldiers in Brigham Young's illegal militia like John Lowry, Niels O. Anderson, Dimmick Huntington, or Brigham's bodyguard and serial killer Porter Rockwell. Or perhaps their intentions are to dehumanize and make a mockery of Utah's native inhabitants. To justify the genocide of Utah's Native Nations and romanticize 'man's inhumanity to man' calling it the "Black Hawk War." Unrighteously placing all blame on the Native peoples of Utah, whose only crime was they being indegenous, is an mind-set that has prevailed since the Mormons arrived a hundred and seventy seven years ago.

In closing, I am reminded of what great-grandfather Pete wrote in the preface of his book in 1919, Indian Depredations in Utah:

 

Peter Gottfredsons book, Indian Depredations in Utah, is a first-hand account of the Utah Black Hawk War written in 1919."It is a half-century and more since the raids and assaults recorded in this book took place, most of the persons who took active parts in the same have responded to the last earthly call, and what information we get first handed must of necessity to be obtained now or never. I have often quarried; why should those conditions be forgotten, and why has so little interest been taken in keeping memoranda and records of events and conditions of those early and trying times."

Why indeed grandfather... why indeed...

Autor, Phillip B Gottfredson

Author: Phillip B Gottfredson

 

See:The Black Hawk War Legacy